State Flower
Scarlet Carnation



State Bird

Ohio Emblems & Monuments:
Seals, Flag, Flower, Buckeye,
Jewels, McKinley Memorial
Columbus, Ohio:
Board of Library Commissioners, 1907




     The origin of the seal of the Northwest Territory is involved in obscurity.  THe seal itself seems to have disappeared long ago.  The earliest mention of its use is made in Governor St. Clair's proclamation of July 26, 1788.  Hon. Wm. H. English, of Indiana, with the aid of the aughorities at Washington, including President Benjamin Harrison, examined many impressions of the seal on old documents, and had made a sketch which he considered "an exact reproduction in every respect of the original."
     In regard to the design, Mr. English says:

     A study of this historic seal will show that it is far from being destitute of appropriate and expressive meaning.  The coiled snake in the foreground and the boats in the middle distance; the rising sun, the forest tree felled by the ax and cut into logs, succeeded, apparently, by an apple tree laden with fruit; the Latin inscription, "Meliorem lapsa locavit,"  "he has planted a better than the fallen," all combine forcibly to express the idea that a wild and savage condition is to be superseded by a higher and better civilization.
     The first constitution of Ohio, which was adopted November 29, 1802, and went into effect March 1, 1803, made general provision for a state seal without specifying its form.  The origin of its essential features is given as follows:
     For some time after the admission of Ohio into the Union, Secretary of State, William Creighton, used his private seal for state papers; but one night, early in the spring of 1803, he, Governor Edward Tiffin, and U. S. Senator Thomas Worthington, with perhaps a few others, met at Adena, the home of Worthington, near Chillicothe, to discuss state affairs.

They talked through the night and among other things considered the matter of a state seal.  Before separating, they stood for a moment on the lawn south of the house, just as the sun rose slowly behind the Mount Logan Range.  Looking with admiration on the morning scene spread out before them, Creighton said: "The rising sun of the new state!"  He then made the suggestion for the great seal of Ohio.  The arrows and the sheaf were after-thoughts.  This is the legend as it has been handed down by the Creightons and the Worthingtons.
     The addition of the canal boat made some changes necessary.  To get such a view, one must look across Mount Logan from the range of hills just west of Chillicothe.  It is doubtful, however, whether there was any effort to make the seal an actual picture.  The hills have always been conventionalized, and in the first seal the river was indicated only by a row of trees.
     It might be added that in some devices two or more sheaves of wheat appear and that great liberties have been taken with the bundle of arrows, as will be seen in one of the illustrations.
      On the right side, near the bottom, a sheaf of wheat, and on the left a bundle of seventeen arrows, both standing erect; in the background and rising above the sheaf and bundle of arrows, a mountain over which shall apper a rising sun, the state seal to be surrounded by these words:  "The Great Seal of the State of Ohio.
     About two years later this law was repealed.  The constitutional provision requiring a state seal remained in force, but there was no specific legislation on the subject until 1866.
     In commenting on the omission in our laws, Judge Rush R. Sloane says:
     What a singular oversight in legislation!  It is not remarkable that in this long period of years some of the state officials, the codifers of the statutes, or the members of the constitutional convention of 1851, among whom were many of the ablest lawyers of the state, should not have discovered it?
     We can now understand that it was because there was no law which required a particular form or device, that there were so many different devices used upon the seals of our state during this long period of years.  In the absence of any act or statute upon this subject, any one who was aware of the repeal of the act of 1803 could secure a seal according to his caprice or interest; and this evidently was the result, as we find that about the time of the inauguration of the canal system in Ohio, the canal or river with the canal-boat upon it, first appeared on our state seal.  The mountain, as it was designated in the act of 1803, has never appeared




SEAL OF 1866

SEAL OF OHIO From a print made about 1860

on any of the seals of the state, nor has it figured in the coat of arms of the state, so far as I have been able to discover; but on the seal provided under that act, as well as the seals and coats of arms of later statutes, in conformity to the practice under the former and the language of the latter, it has always been "a range of mountains," which is more appropriate to Ohio, as the first-born of Ordinance of 1787.
     It is useless to attempt to give a description of all of these devices, which had their origin in individual taste and not in any statute.  You will see on most of them the date "1802," or "1803," in cardinal numbers.  On some you will see a broad-horn floating on a river; and later, the canal-boat and canal.
     Judge Sloane does not refer to the traditional origin of the seal.  He seems to accept the view advanced by other writers who explain that the range of mountains represents the Alleghanies, over which came the pioneers, that the river is the Ohio in the valley of which they laid the foundation of the new state, fittingly symbolized in the rising sun.
     The act of 1866 provided for an elaborate coat of arms, and the following motto to be inscribed on the seal:  "Imperium in Imperio," - an empire within an empire, or a government within a government, a sentiment that gave offense to many people and led to the repeal of the law in 1868 and the substitution of the present act which differs but little from the law of 1803.
     No motto is now provided for either the seal or the coat of arms of the state.  Ohio is therefore without a motto.
     For a very complete account of the evolution of the great seal of the state of Ohio, the reader is referred to Judge Sloane's address on that subject, published in the "Ohio Centennial Celebration, 1903."



     The initial number of The Ohio Magazine says, editorially:
     Many Ohioans may not be aware that their state has a flag, and among those who have been aware of its from the enactment of the law a disposition has been manifested to regard it with scant courtesy - more's the pity.  It has been asserted with a great show of national patriotism, that the stars and stripes "ought to be good enough" for Ohio.  But the good people who have thus expressed themselves have never suggested substituting the seal of the United States for the seal of Ohio, and have never objected to the latter on the ground that it places narrow and local restrictions on the scope of patriotism, as has been charged with reference to the flag.  But if a state of the Union is to have a seal of its own, why not a flag?  The fact is that both are fitting emblems of a commonwealth that is fully able to justify its separate and peculiar existence, as well as its identity as a part of the federal Union
     Those who visited the Pan-American Exposition at Buffalo in the summer of 1901 may have noticed the flag displayed at the Ohio building.  It was designed by John Eisemann, architect, and approved by the Exposition Commission.  It had no legal status, however, until the following year.  On April 1, 1902, W. S. McKinnon, Speaker of the House of Representatives and a member of the Ohio Pan-American Exposition Commission, introduced a bill authorizing and describing the flag.  This became a law May 9th of the same year.  The following is the essential text of the act:
     The flag of the State of Ohio shall be pennant shaped.  It shall have three red and two white horizontal stripes; the union of the flag shall be seventeen five-pointed stars, white, in a blue triangular field, the base


of which shall be the staff end or vertical edge of the flag, and the apex of which shall be the center of the middle red stripe.  The stars shall be grouped around a red disc superimposed upon a white circular "O."  *  *  *  The proportional dimensions of the flag and of its various parts shall be according to the official design thereof on file in the office of the Secretary of State.
     In the design placed on file in accordance with the above law, the dimensions are summarized as follows:
     A rectangle that will include the flag is thirteen parts long and eight parts wide.  In other words, it is one and five-eighths as long as it is wide.  The red stripes are each one part in width.  The two white stripes occupy equal portions of what is left of the flag.  The blue triangular union measures eight parts from base to apex.  The red disc is two parts in diameter; the width of the white ring about it is one-half party.  The distance from the apex of the blue field to the apex of the triangular cut of the tail of the flag is two parts.  The stars are grouped as in the cut of the flag.
     The symbolism of the flag is in part somewhat fanciful and obscure.  The designer has explained it, substantially as follows:
     The triangles formed by the main lines of the flag represent the hills and valleys, as typified in the State seal, and the stripes are roads and waterways.  The stars, indicating the thirteen original states of the Union, are grouped about the circle which represents the original Northwest Territory, and that Ohio was the seventeenth State admitted into the Union is shown by adding the four more stars.  The white circle with its red center, not only represents the initial letter of Ohio, but is suggestive of its being the "Buckeye" State.
     In design this standard resembles the Cuban flag.  The field and the stripes in form and number are essentially the same.  Change red to blue, and blue to red, remove the stars and substitute for the disc and circular "O" a single star, and we have the pennant form of the Cuban flag.  This similarity is historically fitting.  A United States senator from Ohio introduced the resolution that made the people of Cuba free and independent.  Ohio's sons rendered distinguished service on land and seal.  An Ohio President conducted the Spanish-American war to a triumphant conclusion.



     While "state flowers" are becoming somewhat numerous, comparatively few have been made such by legal enactment.  The resolution "relative to a floral emblem for Ohio" was adopted February 3, 1904.  It provides "that the scarlet carnation be adopted as the state flower of Ohio as a token of love and reverence for the memory of William McKinley."  The resolution was introduced by Hon. Elijah W. Hill, of East Liverpool. O.  Its purposes are set forth in his address.

Speech of Hon. Elijah W. Hill, of Columbiana county, author of the resolution making the scarlet carnation the state flower of Ohio, delivered in the Ohio House of Representatives, January 26, 1904.

     MR. SPEAKER: - It is not in the anticipation of opposition that I speak in favor of this resolution, but since it is no mean thing we are about to pass upon, it may be well to stop a moment in contemplation of that which is before us.  True, it is not a weighty matter of state that we consider; no state policy whose failure or success will affect the trend of the life of our citizens.  Yet, it is one of those amenities that go to make the sweetness and niceties of our existence.  Though there be not much in any one of them, yet in the aggregate they have much to do with our refinement and culture; they brighten our dull hours, strengthen our hearts and stimulate our hopes.  Who would banish them from us?  Who would tear down our ideals and leave us only the sordid essentials?
     We propose in this resolution to name for Ohio a floral emblem in whose beauty and fragrance all Ohioans may be reminded of home, their common ties and all they may hold dear.  Flowers, ever the emblem of beauty, the harbinger of hope and love, have been typical always of men's best wishes, hopes and ambitions and the typification of life immortal.  Truly one of our English poets has sung ----

Were I, O God, in churchless lands remaining,
     Far from the voices of teachers and divines,
My soul would find in flowers of God's ordaining
     Priests, sermons, shrines.

     In our great seal of state we have the emblem of authority; in its flag, the banner that shows our political entity; in the buckeye, a soubriquet used in comradeship and fellowship.


Once applied in derision, by good natured acceptance it has become significant and honorable.  Now each of us proudly says, "I am a Buckeye."  It is the "Tome," "Dick" and "Jack" appellation of our fellows who choose not to address us in more stately terms.
     It is not the purpose in adopting a state flower to usurp the place of the buckeye.  We love the term "Buckeye," its traditions and history.  It is to fill another place in the hearts of our people that we seek to establish among us an emblem, not for the use of the stranger as much as for ourselves.  It is our fraternal feeling that we would symbolize.  In our state flower we would say to each other, We are brother Ohioans and in this flower we have fraternal greeting.
     Not all peoples have floral emblems.  Customs grow slowly and events lead to their adoption.  England has the rose; France has the lily; Ireland, the shamrock, and Scotland the thistle.  These flowers awaken in the hearts of the natives of these countries memories of home, fireside, childhood days, sweet sorrows, family ties and the incidents of the land of their nativity.  To these ends we seek to adopt the scarlet carnation as Ohio's floral emblem.
     It is not a native of our own state or country.  Its history takes us back to the cradle of mankind, and before him it may have existed.  We learn of it on the banks of the Euphrates, in Egypt, in Greece, in Italy, and later in France and England.  Thence, ever accompanying and keeping pace with the progress of civilization, it came to our shores, always loved, admired, prized.  The Greeks named it Dianthus, the divine flower.  It is beautiful and fragrant, a flower of no mean history, and no Ohioan may blush for its adoption as the flower of his state.
     Its popularity among our people is unequalled by any other flower.  It is used in personal adorning, in decorating our homes and our festive occasions.  It knows neither rich nor poor; is common to all and is accessible at all seasons.  It seems to live but to show forth its bloom, for sparse is its foliage, slender is its stem.  Its bloom seems to overtax its strength, hence its inclination to droop.  Its very energy in blooming frequently overcrowds its calyx, bursts asunder that physical receptacle of this being, and so hastens its decay.  This recalls to us the intenseness of the Ohioan and his life, of those who not only recently, but in all times, in giving forth their fullness of life, have snapped the vital thread of existence.
     We may differ in race, in intellect, in complexion, - we may dissent in philosophy, religion and politics, but alike is the color of the blood in our veins; so let the scarlet of our state flower be representative of that blood, and remind us ever of our common humanity.
     Events always have their immediate cause, and that which immediately leads to the adoptoin of this flower as our state emblem was the love for it by our lamented McKinley.  To him it was a daily companion.  It is so associated with his memory in the hearts of our people that we feel it meet and appropriate to adopt it as our state flower, as a token of love and reverence to shi memory.  We who treasure his memory, - we who entered into his life and knew him in his day would have this flower thus enshrined.  His greatness, growing greater to all each day, calls forth a memorial to him, that greatness being the full roundedness of character, - unlike that of a genius, - a greatness, great in its fullness of manhood.
     Such a character causes us to say to our youth:  Be like him.  To associate the memory of such an one with our floral emblem is a fitting thing to do.
     Then, for its beauty, its fragrance and its fitness, let it be adopted as the state flower of Ohio; and let the action of its adoption be to the memory of William McKinley.  May the scarlet carnation, as our state flower, emulate us all to deeds that will represent the good that is within us.



     It is somewhat singular, but true nevertheless, that the average Ohioan is not able to point out with certainty the tree whose name is the soubriquet of his state.  In the popular descriptions, fact and fancy, science and oratory are so promiscuously blended that there is nothing remarkable in the resulting confusion.
     F. Andrew Michaux, the eminent French botanist who visited the county in 1807, was somewhat unfortunate in his description of the Ohio Buckeye, or pavia Ohioensis.  He says:
     This species of the horse chestnut, which is mentioned by no author that has hitherto treated of the trees and plants of North America, is unknown  in the Atlantic parts of the United States.  I have found it an interval of about 100 miles, between Pittsburg and Marietta, where it is extremely common.  It is called "buckeye" by the inhabitants, but as this name has been given to the pavia lutea, I have denominated it "Ohio buckeye" because it is most abundant on the banks of this river, and have prefixed the synonym of "American horse chestnut" because it proved to be a proper horse chestnut by its fruit, which is prickly like that of the Asiatic species instead of that of the paviae.
     The ordinary stature of the American horse chestnut is ten or twelve feet, but it sometimes equals thirty or thirty-five feet in height and twelve or fifteen inches in diameter.  The leaves are palmated and consist of five leaflets parting from a common center, unequal in size, oval-acuminate and irregularly toothed.  The entire length of the leaf is nine or ten inches, and its breadth six or eight inches.
     The bloom of this tree is brilliant.  Its flowers appear early in the spring and are collected in numerous white bunches.  The fruit is one of the same color with that of the common horse chestnut and of the large buckeye, and of about half the size.  It is contained in fleshy, prickly capsules, and is ripe in the beginning of autumn.
     On the trunk of the largest trees the bark is blackish and the cellular integument is impregnated with the venomous and disagreeable odor.  The wood is white, soft and wholly useless.
     The Ohio buckeye tree reaches an average height of considerably more than twelve feet, but the greatest error of the French botanist is in the description of the bloom.  This is far from "brilliant."  The flowers are inconspicuous, never white, always a yellowish green.  Michaux makes amends in part for his mistake in describing the above by inserting a plate of a cluster of flowers which are not white, as stated in the text, but yellowish green as seen in nature.  For ornamental purposes the tree has nothing to make it preferred to the horse chestnut.


     As these two trees are frequently confused in the popular mind, the following discriminating description from "Our Native Trees," by Harriet L. Keeler, is here reproduced:
     The horse-chestnut is European, the buckeye native.  The horse-chestnut is seven-fingered, the buckeye five-fingered.  The horse-chestnut is the sturdier tree, the leaves are larger, rougher, the flowers


much more profuse and more beautiful that those of the buckeye.  It is a fact well known that European plants - herbs or trees - if they flourish in America at all are very likely to produce sturdier plants than the native is stronger than the buckeye.  There is a certain delicacy of fibre inseparable from all American native life.  Perhaps some day the biologist will read the riddle..
     How the buckeye got its name is quite obvious.  "When the shell cracks and exposes to view the rich brown nut with the pale brown scar, the resemblance to the half-opened eye of a deer is not fancied but real.  From this resemblance came the name buckeye."
     How it happened that Ohio was called the Buckeye State is not so certainly known.  Dr. S. P. Hildreth, the pioneer historian of Marietta, in describing the ceremonies attending the opening of the first court of the Northwest Territory, September 2, 1788, mentions the presence of a large body of Indians, representing some of the most powerful tribes of the northwest, who had come for the purpose of making a treaty.  These sons of the forest were much impressed with the ceremonials.  They especially admired the bearing of the high sheriff, Col. Ebenezer Sproat, a man of splendid physique, who with drawn sword, led the procession, and called him "Hetuck," which in our language signifies "big buckeye."  This expression of admiration was afterward frequently applied to Col. Sproat, "and became a sort of nickname by which he was familiarly known among his associates.
     "That," says the historian, "was certainly the first known application to an individual in the sense now used, but there is no evidence that the name continued to be so used and applied from that time forward, or that it became a fixed and accepted soubriquet of the state and people until more than half a century afterwards; during all of which time the buckeye continued to be an object of more or less interest, and as immigration made its way across the state, and the settlements extended into the rich valleys where it was found by travellers and explorers, and was by them carried back to the east and shown as a rare curiosity from what was then known as the 'far west,' possessing certain medical properties for which it was highly prized.  But the name never became fully crystallized until 1840, when in the crucible of what is known as the 'bitterest, longest and most extraordinary political contest ever waged in the United States,' the name Buckeye became a fixed soubriquet of the State of Ohio and its people, known and understood wherever either is spoken of, and likely to continue as long as either shall be remembered or the English language endures."
     The Ohio campaign opened at Columbus, February 22, 1840.  Among


the striking devices to attract attention was a log cabin from Union county, "built of buckeye logs, upon a wagon drawn in the procession by horses."  Within the cabin and on the roof the jolly campaigners sang a song composed by Otway Curry for the occasion, the words of which were in part as follows:

O where, tell me where
     Was your buckeye cabin made?
              *   *   *   *
'Twas built among the merry boys
     Who wield the plough and spade,
Where the log-cabins stand,
     In the bonnie buckeye shade.

O what, tell me what, is to be your cabin's fate?
              *   *   *   *
We'll wheel it to the capital and place it there elate,
For a token and a sign and place it there elate,
For a token and a sign of the bonnie Buckeye State.

     While this remarkable campaign did much to fix the appellation and give it wide currency, there is evidence that its significance was generally well understood at a much earlier date.  Cyrus P. Bradley, while in Ohio in the summer of 1835, made this entry in his journal:
     We were shown many specimens of the buckeye, the shrub or tree from which the inhabitants of Ohio derive their national soubriquet.  It bears a round nut, which is covered with an outer rind or shell, and on whose surface appears a white circular spot like the pupil of the eye.
     This shows conclusively that the emblematic significance of the buckeye was known at least five years before the Tippecanoe campaign.  Just when it was first applied to the state of Ohio and its citizenship, is a problem for the local historian of the future.
     In the light of the foregoing statements, we must not take too literally many of the fanciful things that have been said and written of the buckeye.  It is true, as Dr. Drake observes, that "it is not merely a native of the West, but peculiar to it; has received from the botanist the specific name of Ohioensis, from its abundance in our beautiful valley; and is the only tree of our whole forest that does not grow elsewhere."  It was never extensively used, however, for many of the other qualities that he enumerates in his entertaining and inspiring address at a banquet given in Cincinnati, on the occasion of the forty-fourth anniversary of the admission of Ohio into the Union.  The wood, which is light, soft and strong, has been used for bowls and artificial limbs.  The bark has certain medicinal qualities.  The fruit, though not edible, is beautiful to look upon.  Though inferior in its foliage to the horse chestnut and the sugar maple, it can be trained into an attractive shade tree.  All things considered, the name of no other tree of our primeval forest, perhaps, could more appropriately have been chosen as the soubriquet of Ohio.


     For interesting and very appreciative descriptions of the buckeye, see the following:
     Howe's "Historical Collections," Vol. 1, pages 210-7.  In these pages will be found a description by William M. Farrar, including the address by Dr. Drake.
     The Ohio Magazine for August, 1906.  Here will be found under the caption "Ohio Tree Family," a fine article by Lena Kline Reed, appropriately illustrated, in which is told the story of the Ohio buckeye tree.
     Vol. IX. of the New International Encyclopaedia, page 576, contains fine illustrations of the Ohio buckeye and the horse chestnut.
     For the cuts used in this article acknowledgment is made to The Ohio Magazine.



     At the northwest corner of the Capitol building, in Columbus, stands a group of bronze statues on a substantial and symmetrical pedestal of granite.  The figures about the central shaft are statues of Grant, Sherman, Sheridan, Stanton, Garfield, Hayes and Chase.  Surmounting the shaft is an effigy of Cornelia, the Roman matron, mother of the famous Gracchi.  Near the top of the shaft are inscribed her words as handed down by the historians, "These are my jewels."
     The story is so familiar that it need scarcely be repeated here.  Cornelia lived in the early days of the Roman republic.  She was famous for her culture, refinement and devotion to her children.  One day she was visited by a patrician lady friend, arrayed in costly raiment and decked with brilliant gems.  After exhibiting the latter, the guest said:
     "Cornelia, where are your jewels?  I should like to see them."
     "And I shall be delighted to show them to you," was the reply.
     With some pretext she beguiled her visitor until her two sons, fresh from school, entered the room.  Then, her face beaming with motherly pride, she led forward the Gracchi boys and said, "These are my jewels."
     The boys afterwards grew up to manhood and give up their lives in the service of their country.
     General Roeliff Brinkerhoff suggested this interesting group of statuary.  In his "Recollections of a Lifetime" he has described the inception and evolution of


     The genesis of this monument in brief, was as follows:
     In February, 1891, at a banquet in Columbus, of the Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society, I was put upon the program to respond


purpose so far as I was concerned.  After the fair was over the monument was removed to Columbus, where General Hayes was added to the group.
     The Ohio monument, apparently, had its origin in the inspirations of an after-dinner speech, and to a large extent that is a fact; and yet I am not sure but the inspiration, after all, had its origin in my decorations at Washington City in 1865, at the jollification in the celebration of Lee's surrender, which I have already described.  "Ohio's Quota" contained all the figures on the monument except Chase and Garfield.*

At the Dedication of the Ohio Monument, Jackson Park, Chicago,
September 14, 1893.

    We, the citizens of Ohio, have met to-day in this pantheon of the nations to remember and honor our own great state.  Whilst we are Americans, and proud of our nationality, we are also proud to believe that in the galaxy of states there is no star brighter than Ohio.  Nowhere on the rounded globe is there another block of land of the size of Ohio which equals it in all the essentials required for the abode of civilized men.  In fertility of soil, in diversity of products, in mines of coal and iron, in quarries of stone, in healthfulness of climate, in beauty of landscape, in accessibility of location by water and by land, she is absolutely peerless.
     Leaving out the great cities of New York, Philadelphia and Chicago, which are alien rather than native, and are the creations of commerce and not the children of a state, Ohio is easily the greatest state in the Union in population and wealth, and always will be.
     Whilst we remember all this, and are proud to remember it, we also remember and are glad to remember that the highest glory of a state or nation is not in bigness, but in mind, as manifested and represented by its men and women.
     Two thousand years ago that contracted peninsula in the Aegean Sea was but a speck in size compared with the surrounding countries, and yet, to-day, in architecture and in art, in oratory and in song, in literature and in philosophy, and in all that makes a nation truly great, the republics of Greece are the models of the world.
     Two thousand years ago, and for a thousand years before, Palestine was but a handbreadth on the continent of Asia, between the Jordan and the sea; and yet in all the nations of the world's annals the Hebrew is the most memorable and the most potential.
     So in a concourse of nations, the highest claim for recognition must be mind and not matter - men and not things.  So in this concourse of nations in which we are now gathered, Ohio is not ashamed to present her achievements in comparison with the proudest, both in matter and in mind; for around us to-day, in every department of human endeavor, the image and the superscription of Ohio is pre-eminent.
     To-day, however, in the dedication of this monumental group, we call attention to the fact that in men of international renown, Ohio is absolutely peerless among the states and nations of this western hemisphere.  Like the constellation of Orion in the heavens, we have six stars of resplendent magnitude, and in the inventory of our treasures, "these are our jewels."
     Who they are and what they were is known to all mankind, and therefor for the purposes of this exposition, a biographical description is not necessary, but for the purposes of this exposition, a biographical description is not necessary, but for the purposes of this gathering of Ohio people, it seems proper for those who knew them, not only to bear testimony to their pre-eminence as soldiers and statesmen, but also to give personal recollections of acquaintance with them.  I knew them all, and some of them intimately.  Grant, Sherman, and Sheridan are the only soldiers who ever attained the full rank of general, in the United States, since the organization of our government.  In the splendor of their achievements, they have never been equaled upon this continent, and have never been surpassed by the soldiers of any other continent.  They were not only great soldiers, but they were also patriotic citizens, and never thought a thought or dreamed a dream, that was disloyal to liberty or the institutions of their native land.
     So with Chase, Stanton, and Garfield; they were not only statesmen of the highest rank, but they were also noble-minded gentlemen in all the relations of life.  Mr. Chase, Mentally, morally and physically, was the noblest man, I think, I have ever known.  He was the friend of my youth, and the friend of my manhood, and I knew him better than any other public man of high position.  He was my political god-father, and I followed his banner until he died.  As an anti-slavery leader before the war, as a financial organizer during the war, he had no equal.  As a statesman, as a patriot and as a Christian gentleman, I do not know of any one since Washington, more worthy of honor by the nation or more worthy of imitation by coming generations.
     Edwin M. Stanton, next to Lincoln, in my judgment, rendered more important service in subduing the Rebellion than any other man.  Never in the history of the nations, has there been a war secretary of larger ability, or greater devotion to the cause he represented.  He was the right hand of the President in the great struggle, and a century hence, when history can be written in truer proportions than is possible now, the name of Stanton in the great rebellion will be next to Lincoln.  No one, perhaps, in the great struggle was more misunderstood than Mr. Stanton.  To the multitude he seemed harsh, and to many cruel, and even now to the majority of Americans, I apprehend such ideas are more or less dominant, but to those who were near enough to him to know him intimately, and I was one of them, there was no man more kind, or considerate, or appreciative.  To drones, or laggards, or shirks, he was merciless, but to everyone, high or low, who was efficient, and sought to do his duty, he was always a friend.  Of those upon our monument, there is no one, perhaps, of wider international renown than President Garfield.  The pathos of his death, as much as the achievements of his life, has made him immortal.  No man in this generation was endowed by nature with larger gifts, and no one, probably, ever came to the office of president better equipped for the discharge of its duties, and therefore, the calamity of his taking off has filled the world with sorrow.  I was associated with him in many ways before the war, during the war, and after the war, and a more attractive man I have never known.  I doubt if any man in public or in private life had more friends and fewer enemies than James A. Garfield.
     In conclusion, let me say that we as citizens of Ohio have reason to thank God and rejoice that we have a heritage so glorious as the memories of the men we celebrate to-day.  The emulation of examples like these makes nations great, and keeps them so.  The soil out of which such men have grown is good to be born on, good to die for, and good to be buried in. - Brinkerhoff's "Recollections of a Lifetime." pp. 331-5.



     An imposing statue of William McKinley occupies a commanding position at the western entrance to the State House grounds, Columbus, O.  The entire cost of this work of art was $50,000, one-half of which was contributed by the citizens of the capital city, and one-half by the State through an appropriation by the General Assembbly.
     The statue was unveiled September 14, 1906, in the presence of 50,000 people.  Mrs. Nicholas Longworth, daughter of President Roosevelt, drew the silken cord that released the draping flags from the statue of bronze.  In the evening eloquent addresses were delivered by Judge William R. Day, of the United States Supreme Court, and Hon. John W. Daniel, United States senator from Virginia.
     The memorial is in the form of an arc of a circle.  In the center is the pedestal surmounted by a figure of heroic size representing President McKinley, as he delivered his last address at the Pan-American Exposition.  At each end and connected with the central pedestal by a granite bench are bronze groups of allegorical figures, "intended to typify American ideas and sentiments that underlie good government."
     "On the right is the type of physical force and human energy in repose - beside whom is seated the youth of the coming generation in the attitude of intense study - counseled by the practical wisdom of maturity.  Together they typify prosperity through progress.
     "On the left is a beautiful figure of a woman, typical of those noble attributes of heart and home for which were exemplified in the man toward whom was looks.  Her left hand, protectingly encircling the maiden at her side, places above the emblems of war (sword and helmet) the palm of peace.  The maiden holds in her hand a wreath.  This group is intended to symbolize the tribute of the people to McKinley."
     On the stone work on either side of the statue of McKinley are quotations from his last address.  On the left:
     "Let us ever remember that our interest is in concord, not conflict; and that our real eminence rests in the victories of peace, not those of war."


     On the right:
     "Our earnest prayer is that God will graciously vouchsafe prosperity, happiness and peace to all our neighbors; and like blessings to all the peoples and all the powers of earth."
The statue is the work of the well known sculptor, Hermon A. MacNeil.

     * At this celebration General Brinkerhoff had displayed illuminated portraits of Grant, Sherman and Sheridan over which was the inscription "Ohio's Quota."

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