SEALS AND OHIO FLAG.
SEALS OF THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY AND OHIO
of the seal of the Northwest Territory is involved in
obscurity. THe seal itself seems to have disappeared
long ago. The earliest mention of its use is made in
Governor St. Clair's proclamation of July 26, 1788. Hon.
Wm. H. English, of Indiana, with the aid of the aughorities at
Washington, including President Benjamin Harrison, examined
many impressions of the seal on old documents, and had made a
sketch which he considered "an exact reproduction in every
respect of the original."
In regard to the design, Mr. English says:
A study of this historic seal will show that it is far
from being destitute of appropriate and expressive meaning.
The coiled snake in the foreground and the boats in the middle
distance; the rising sun, the forest tree felled by the ax and
cut into logs, succeeded, apparently, by an apple tree laden
with fruit; the Latin inscription, "Meliorem lapsa locavit,"
"he has planted a better than the fallen," all combine
forcibly to express the idea that a wild and savage condition
is to be superseded by a higher and better civilization.
The first constitution of Ohio, which was adopted
November 29, 1802, and went into effect March 1, 1803, made
general provision for a state seal without specifying its
form. The origin of its essential features is given as
For some time after the admission of Ohio into the
Union, Secretary of State, William Creighton, used his private
seal for state papers; but one night, early in the spring of
1803, he, Governor Edward Tiffin, and U. S. Senator Thomas
Worthington, with perhaps a few others, met at Adena, the home
of Worthington, near Chillicothe, to discuss state affairs.
They talked through the night and among
other things considered the matter of a state seal.
Before separating, they stood for a moment on the lawn south
of the house, just as the sun rose slowly behind the Mount
Logan Range. Looking with admiration on the morning
scene spread out before them, Creighton said: "The rising sun
of the new state!" He then made the suggestion for the
great seal of Ohio. The arrows and the sheaf were
after-thoughts. This is the legend as it has been handed
down by the Creightons and the Worthingtons.
The addition of the canal boat made some changes
necessary. To get such a view, one must look across
Mount Logan from the range of hills just west of Chillicothe.
It is doubtful, however, whether there was any effort to make
the seal an actual picture. The hills have always been
conventionalized, and in the first seal the river was
indicated only by a row of trees.
It might be added that in some devices two or more
sheaves of wheat appear and that great liberties have been
taken with the bundle of arrows, as will be seen in one of the
On the right side, near the bottom, a sheaf of
wheat, and on the left a bundle of seventeen arrows, both
standing erect; in the background and rising above the sheaf
and bundle of arrows, a mountain over which shall apper
a rising sun, the state seal to be surrounded by these words:
"The Great Seal of the State of Ohio.
About two years later this law was repealed. The
constitutional provision requiring a state seal remained in
force, but there was no specific legislation on the subject
In commenting on the omission in our laws, Judge Rush
R. Sloane says:
What a singular oversight in legislation! It is
not remarkable that in this long period of years some of the
state officials, the codifers of the statutes, or the members
of the constitutional convention of 1851, among whom were many
of the ablest lawyers of the state, should not have discovered
We can now understand that it was because there was no
law which required a particular form or device, that there
were so many different devices used upon the seals of our
state during this long period of years. In the absence
of any act or statute upon this subject, any one who was aware
of the repeal of the act of 1803 could secure a seal according
to his caprice or interest; and this evidently was the result,
as we find that about the time of the inauguration of the
canal system in Ohio, the canal or river with the canal-boat
upon it, first appeared on our state seal. The mountain,
as it was designated in the act of 1803, has never appeared
SEAL OF THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY
FIRST SEAL OF OHIO
THE PRESENT SEAL OF OHIO
SEAL OF 1866
SEAL OF OHIO From a print made about
on any of the seals of the state, nor has
it figured in the coat of arms of the state, so far as I have
been able to discover; but on the seal provided under that
act, as well as the seals and coats of arms of later statutes,
in conformity to the practice under the former and the
language of the latter, it has always been "a range of
mountains," which is more appropriate to Ohio, as the
first-born of Ordinance of 1787.
It is useless to attempt to give a description of all
of these devices, which had their origin in individual taste
and not in any statute. You will see on most of them the
date "1802," or "1803," in cardinal numbers. On some you
will see a broad-horn floating on a river; and later, the
canal-boat and canal.
Judge Sloane does not refer to the traditional origin
of the seal. He seems to accept the view advanced by
other writers who explain that the range of mountains
represents the Alleghanies, over which came the pioneers, that
the river is the Ohio in the valley of which they laid the
foundation of the new state, fittingly symbolized in the
The act of 1866 provided for an elaborate coat of arms,
and the following motto to be inscribed on the seal: "Imperium
in Imperio," - an empire within an empire, or a government
within a government, a sentiment that gave offense to many
people and led to the repeal of the law in 1868 and the
substitution of the present act which differs but little from
the law of 1803.
No motto is now provided for either the seal or the
coat of arms of the state. Ohio is therefore without a
For a very complete account of the evolution of the
great seal of the state of Ohio, the reader is referred to
Judge Sloane's address on that subject, published in the "Ohio
Centennial Celebration, 1903."
THE FLAG OF OHIO.
The initial number
of The Ohio Magazine says, editorially:
Many Ohioans may not be aware that their state has a
flag, and among those who have been aware of its from the
enactment of the law a disposition has been manifested to
regard it with scant courtesy - more's the pity. It has
been asserted with a great show of national patriotism, that
the stars and stripes "ought to be good enough" for Ohio.
But the good people who have thus expressed themselves have
never suggested substituting the seal of the United States for
the seal of Ohio, and have never objected to the latter on the
ground that it places narrow and local restrictions on the
scope of patriotism, as has been charged with reference to the
flag. But if a state of the Union is to have a seal of
its own, why not a flag? The fact is that both are
fitting emblems of a commonwealth that is fully able to
justify its separate and peculiar existence, as well as its
identity as a part of the federal Union
Those who visited the Pan-American Exposition at
Buffalo in the summer of 1901 may have noticed the flag
displayed at the Ohio building. It was designed by John
Eisemann, architect, and approved by the Exposition
Commission. It had no legal status, however, until the
following year. On April 1, 1902, W. S. McKinnon,
Speaker of the House of Representatives and a member of the
Ohio Pan-American Exposition Commission, introduced a bill
authorizing and describing the flag. This became a law
May 9th of the same year. The following is the essential
text of the act:
The flag of the State of Ohio shall be pennant shaped.
It shall have three red and two white horizontal stripes; the
union of the flag shall be seventeen five-pointed stars,
white, in a blue triangular field, the base
FLAG OF OHIO
of which shall be the staff end or vertical
edge of the flag, and the apex of which shall be the center of
the middle red stripe. The stars shall be grouped around
a red disc superimposed upon a white circular "O." *
* * The proportional dimensions of the flag and of
its various parts shall be according to the official design
thereof on file in the office of the Secretary of State.
In the design placed on file in accordance with the
above law, the dimensions are summarized as follows:
A rectangle that will include the flag is thirteen
parts long and eight parts wide. In other words, it is
one and five-eighths as long as it is wide. The red
stripes are each one part in width. The two white
stripes occupy equal portions of what is left of the flag.
The blue triangular union measures eight parts from base to
apex. The red disc is two parts in diameter; the width
of the white ring about it is one-half party. The
distance from the apex of the blue field to the apex of the
triangular cut of the tail of the flag is two parts. The
stars are grouped as in the cut of the flag.
The symbolism of the flag is in part somewhat fanciful
and obscure. The designer has explained it,
substantially as follows:
The triangles formed by the main lines of the flag
represent the hills and valleys, as typified in the State
seal, and the stripes are roads and waterways. The
stars, indicating the thirteen original states of the Union,
are grouped about the circle which represents the original
Northwest Territory, and that Ohio was the seventeenth State
admitted into the Union is shown by adding the four more
stars. The white circle with its red center, not only
represents the initial letter of Ohio, but is suggestive of
its being the "Buckeye" State.
In design this standard resembles the Cuban flag.
The field and the stripes in form and number are essentially
the same. Change red to blue, and blue to red, remove
the stars and substitute for the disc and circular "O" a
single star, and we have the pennant form of the Cuban flag.
This similarity is historically fitting. A United States
senator from Ohio introduced the resolution that made the
people of Cuba free and independent. Ohio's sons
rendered distinguished service on land and seal. An Ohio
President conducted the Spanish-American war to a triumphant
SCARLET CARNATION AND OHIO
THE STATE FLOWER OF OHIO.
flowers" are becoming somewhat numerous, comparatively few
have been made such by legal enactment. The resolution
"relative to a floral emblem for Ohio" was adopted February 3,
1904. It provides "that the scarlet carnation be adopted
as the state flower of Ohio as a token of love and reverence
for the memory of William McKinley." The resolution was
introduced by Hon. Elijah W. Hill, of East Liverpool. O.
Its purposes are set forth in his address.
Speech of Hon. Elijah W. Hill, of
Columbiana county, author of the resolution making the scarlet
carnation the state flower of Ohio, delivered in the Ohio
House of Representatives, January 26, 1904.
MR. SPEAKER: - It
is not in the anticipation of opposition that I speak in favor
of this resolution, but since it is no mean thing we are about
to pass upon, it may be well to stop a moment in contemplation
of that which is before us. True, it is not a weighty
matter of state that we consider; no state policy whose
failure or success will affect the trend of the life of our
citizens. Yet, it is one of those amenities that go to
make the sweetness and niceties of our existence. Though
there be not much in any one of them, yet in the aggregate
they have much to do with our refinement and culture; they
brighten our dull hours, strengthen our hearts and stimulate
our hopes. Who would banish them from us? Who
would tear down our ideals and leave us only the sordid
We propose in this resolution to name for Ohio a floral
emblem in whose beauty and fragrance all Ohioans may be
reminded of home, their common ties and all they may hold
dear. Flowers, ever the emblem of beauty, the harbinger
of hope and love, have been typical always of men's best
wishes, hopes and ambitions and the typification of life
immortal. Truly one of our English poets has sung ----
|Were I, O God, in churchless lands
Far from the voices of teachers and divines,
My soul would find in flowers of God's ordaining
Priests, sermons, shrines.
In our great seal
of state we have the emblem of authority; in its flag, the
banner that shows our political entity; in the buckeye, a
soubriquet used in comradeship and fellowship.
OHIO'S STATE FLOWER
Once applied in derision, by good natured
acceptance it has become significant and honorable. Now
each of us proudly says, "I am a Buckeye." It is the
"Tome," "Dick" and "Jack" appellation of our fellows who
choose not to address us in more stately terms.
It is not the purpose in adopting a state flower to
usurp the place of the buckeye. We love the term
"Buckeye," its traditions and history. It is to fill
another place in the hearts of our people that we seek to
establish among us an emblem, not for the use of the stranger
as much as for ourselves. It is our fraternal feeling
that we would symbolize. In our state flower we would
say to each other, We are brother Ohioans and in this flower
we have fraternal greeting.
Not all peoples have floral emblems. Customs grow
slowly and events lead to their adoption. England has
the rose; France has the lily; Ireland, the shamrock, and
Scotland the thistle. These flowers awaken in the hearts
of the natives of these countries memories of home, fireside,
childhood days, sweet sorrows, family ties and the incidents
of the land of their nativity. To these ends we seek to
adopt the scarlet carnation as Ohio's floral emblem.
It is not a native of our own state or country.
Its history takes us back to the cradle of mankind, and before
him it may have existed. We learn of it on the banks of
the Euphrates, in Egypt, in Greece, in Italy, and later in
France and England. Thence, ever accompanying and
keeping pace with the progress of civilization, it came to our
shores, always loved, admired, prized. The Greeks named
it Dianthus, the divine flower. It is beautiful and
fragrant, a flower of no mean history, and no Ohioan may blush
for its adoption as the flower of his state.
Its popularity among our people is unequalled by any
other flower. It is used in personal adorning, in
decorating our homes and our festive occasions. It knows
neither rich nor poor; is common to all and is accessible at
all seasons. It seems to live but to show forth its
bloom, for sparse is its foliage, slender is its stem.
Its bloom seems to overtax its strength, hence its inclination
to droop. Its very energy in blooming frequently
overcrowds its calyx, bursts asunder that physical receptacle
of this being, and so hastens its decay. This recalls to
us the intenseness of the Ohioan and his life, of those who
not only recently, but in all times, in giving forth their
fullness of life, have snapped the vital thread of existence.
We may differ in race, in intellect, in complexion, -
we may dissent in philosophy, religion and politics, but alike
is the color of the blood in our veins; so let the scarlet of
our state flower be representative of that blood, and remind
us ever of our common humanity.
Events always have their immediate cause, and that
which immediately leads to the adoptoin of this flower as our
state emblem was the love for it by our lamented McKinley.
To him it was a daily companion. It is so associated
with his memory in the hearts of our people that we feel it
meet and appropriate to adopt it as our state flower, as a
token of love and reverence to shi memory. We who
treasure his memory, - we who entered into his life and knew
him in his day would have this flower thus enshrined.
His greatness, growing greater to all each day, calls forth a
memorial to him, that greatness being the full roundedness of
character, - unlike that of a genius, - a greatness, great in
its fullness of manhood.
Such a character causes us to say to our youth:
Be like him. To associate the memory of such an one with
our floral emblem is a fitting thing to do.
Then, for its beauty, its fragrance and its fitness,
let it be adopted as the state flower of Ohio; and let the
action of its adoption be to the memory of William McKinley.
May the scarlet carnation, as our state flower, emulate us all
to deeds that will represent the good that is within us.
THE STATE FLOWER OF OHIO.
It is somewhat
singular, but true nevertheless, that the average Ohioan is
not able to point out with certainty the tree whose name is
the soubriquet of his state. In the popular
descriptions, fact and fancy, science and oratory are so
promiscuously blended that there is nothing remarkable in the
F. Andrew Michaux, the eminent French botanist who
visited the county in 1807, was somewhat unfortunate in his
description of the Ohio Buckeye, or pavia Ohioensis.
This species of the horse chestnut, which is mentioned
by no author that has hitherto treated of the trees and plants
of North America, is unknown in the Atlantic parts of
the United States. I have found it an interval of about
100 miles, between Pittsburg and Marietta, where it is
extremely common. It is called "buckeye" by the
inhabitants, but as this name has been given to the pavia
lutea, I have denominated it "Ohio buckeye" because it is
most abundant on the banks of this river, and have prefixed
the synonym of "American horse chestnut" because it proved to
be a proper horse chestnut by its fruit, which is prickly like
that of the Asiatic species instead of that of the paviae.
The ordinary stature of the American horse chestnut is
ten or twelve feet, but it sometimes equals thirty or
thirty-five feet in height and twelve or fifteen inches in
diameter. The leaves are palmated and consist of five
leaflets parting from a common center, unequal in size,
oval-acuminate and irregularly toothed. The entire
length of the leaf is nine or ten inches, and its breadth six
or eight inches.
The bloom of this tree is brilliant. Its flowers
appear early in the spring and are collected in numerous white
bunches. The fruit is one of the same color with that of
the common horse chestnut and of the large buckeye, and of
about half the size. It is contained in fleshy, prickly
capsules, and is ripe in the beginning of autumn.
On the trunk of the largest trees the bark is blackish
and the cellular integument is impregnated with the venomous
and disagreeable odor. The wood is white, soft and
The Ohio buckeye tree reaches an average height of
considerably more than twelve feet, but the greatest error of
the French botanist is in the description of the bloom.
This is far from "brilliant." The flowers are
inconspicuous, never white, always a yellowish green.
Michaux makes amends in part for his mistake in describing the
above by inserting a plate of a cluster of flowers which are
not white, as stated in the text, but yellowish green as seen
in nature. For ornamental purposes the tree has nothing
to make it preferred to the horse chestnut.
LEAVES AND BLOOM OF THE OHIO BUCKEYE
As these two trees
are frequently confused in the popular mind, the following
discriminating description from "Our Native Trees," by Harriet
L. Keeler, is here reproduced:
The horse-chestnut is European, the buckeye native.
The horse-chestnut is seven-fingered, the buckeye
five-fingered. The horse-chestnut is the sturdier tree,
the leaves are larger, rougher, the flowers
LEAVES AND FLOWERS FROM THE HORSE CHESTNUT
much more profuse and more beautiful that
those of the buckeye. It is a fact well known that
European plants - herbs or trees - if they flourish in America
at all are very likely to produce sturdier plants than the
native is stronger than the buckeye. There is a certain
delicacy of fibre inseparable from all American native life.
Perhaps some day the biologist will read the riddle..
How the buckeye got its name is quite obvious.
"When the shell cracks and exposes to view the rich brown nut
with the pale brown scar, the resemblance to the half-opened
eye of a deer is not fancied but real. From this
resemblance came the name buckeye."
How it happened that Ohio was called the Buckeye State
is not so certainly known. Dr. S. P. Hildreth, the
pioneer historian of Marietta, in describing the ceremonies
attending the opening of the first court of the Northwest
Territory, September 2, 1788, mentions the presence of a large
body of Indians, representing some of the most powerful tribes
of the northwest, who had come for the purpose of making a
treaty. These sons of the forest were much impressed
with the ceremonials. They especially admired the
bearing of the high sheriff, Col. Ebenezer Sproat, a man of
splendid physique, who with drawn sword, led the procession,
and called him "Hetuck," which in our language signifies "big
buckeye." This expression of admiration was afterward
frequently applied to Col. Sproat, "and became a sort of
nickname by which he was familiarly known among his
"That," says the historian, "was certainly the first
known application to an individual in the sense now used, but
there is no evidence that the name continued to be so used and
applied from that time forward, or that it became a fixed and
accepted soubriquet of the state and people until more than
half a century afterwards; during all of which time the
buckeye continued to be an object of more or less interest,
and as immigration made its way across the state, and the
settlements extended into the rich valleys where it was found
by travellers and explorers, and was by them carried back to
the east and shown as a rare curiosity from what was then
known as the 'far west,' possessing certain medical properties
for which it was highly prized. But the name never
became fully crystallized until 1840, when in the crucible of
what is known as the 'bitterest, longest and most
extraordinary political contest ever waged in the United
States,' the name Buckeye became a fixed soubriquet of the
State of Ohio and its people, known and understood wherever
either is spoken of, and likely to continue as long as either
shall be remembered or the English language endures."
The Ohio campaign opened at Columbus, February 22,
FRUIT OF THE OHIO BUCKEYE
the striking devices to attract attention
was a log cabin from Union county, "built of buckeye logs,
upon a wagon drawn in the procession by horses." Within
the cabin and on the roof the jolly campaigners sang a song
composed by Otway Curry for the occasion, the words of which
were in part as follows:
|O where, tell me where
Was your buckeye cabin made?
* * *
'Twas built among the merry boys
Who wield the plough and spade,
Where the log-cabins stand,
In the bonnie buckeye shade.
O what, tell me what, is
to be your cabin's fate?
* * *
We'll wheel it to the capital and place it there elate,
For a token and a sign and place it there
For a token and a sign of the bonnie
remarkable campaign did much to fix the appellation and give
it wide currency, there is evidence that its significance
was generally well understood at a much earlier date.
Cyrus P. Bradley, while in Ohio in the summer of 1835, made
this entry in his journal:
We were shown many specimens of the buckeye, the shrub
or tree from which the inhabitants of Ohio derive their
national soubriquet. It bears a round nut, which is
covered with an outer rind or shell, and on whose surface
appears a white circular spot like the pupil of the eye.
This shows conclusively that the emblematic
significance of the buckeye was known at least five years
before the Tippecanoe campaign. Just when it was first
applied to the state of Ohio and its citizenship, is a
problem for the local historian of the future.
In the light of the foregoing statements, we must not
take too literally many of the fanciful things that have
been said and written of the buckeye. It is true, as
Dr. Drake observes, that "it is not merely a native of the
West, but peculiar to it; has received from the botanist the
specific name of Ohioensis, from its abundance in our
beautiful valley; and is the only tree of our whole forest
that does not grow elsewhere." It was never
extensively used, however, for many of the other qualities
that he enumerates in his entertaining and inspiring address
at a banquet given in Cincinnati, on the occasion of the
forty-fourth anniversary of the admission of Ohio into the
Union. The wood, which is light, soft and strong, has
been used for bowls and artificial limbs. The bark has
certain medicinal qualities. The fruit, though not
edible, is beautiful to look upon. Though inferior in
its foliage to the horse chestnut and the sugar maple, it
can be trained into an attractive shade tree. All
things considered, the name of no other tree of our primeval
forest, perhaps, could more appropriately have been chosen
as the soubriquet of Ohio.
and very appreciative descriptions of the buckeye, see the
Howe's "Historical Collections," Vol. 1, pages 210-7.
In these pages will be found a description by William M.
Farrar, including the address by Dr. Drake.
The Ohio Magazine for August, 1906. Here
will be found under the caption "Ohio Tree Family," a fine
article by Lena Kline Reed, appropriately illustrated, in
which is told the story of the Ohio buckeye tree.
Vol. IX. of the New International Encyclopaedia, page
576, contains fine illustrations of the Ohio buckeye and the
For the cuts used in this article acknowledgment is
made to The Ohio Magazine.
OHIO'S JEWELS AND McKINLEY
At the northwest
corner of the Capitol building, in Columbus, stands a group of
bronze statues on a substantial and symmetrical pedestal of
granite. The figures about the central shaft are statues
of Grant, Sherman, Sheridan, Stanton, Garfield, Hayes and
Chase. Surmounting the shaft is an effigy of Cornelia,
the Roman matron, mother of the famous Gracchi. Near the
top of the shaft are inscribed her words as handed down by the
historians, "These are my jewels."
The story is so familiar that it need scarcely be
repeated here. Cornelia lived in the early days of the
Roman republic. She was famous for her culture,
refinement and devotion to her children. One day she was
visited by a patrician lady friend, arrayed in costly raiment
and decked with brilliant gems. After exhibiting the
latter, the guest said:
"Cornelia, where are your jewels? I should like
to see them."
"And I shall be delighted to show them to you," was the
With some pretext she beguiled her visitor until her
two sons, fresh from school, entered the room. Then, her
face beaming with motherly pride, she led forward the Gracchi
boys and said, "These are my jewels."
The boys afterwards grew up to manhood and give up
their lives in the service of their country.
General Roeliff Brinkerhoff suggested this interesting
group of statuary. In his "Recollections of a Lifetime"
he has described the inception and evolution of
The genesis of
this monument in brief, was as follows:
In February, 1891, at a banquet in Columbus, of the
Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society, I was put upon the
program to respond
"THESE ARE MY JEWELS"
purpose so far as I was concerned.
After the fair was over the monument was removed to Columbus,
where General Hayes was added to the group.
The Ohio monument, apparently, had its origin in the
inspirations of an after-dinner speech, and to a large extent
that is a fact; and yet I am not sure but the inspiration,
after all, had its origin in my decorations at Washington City
in 1865, at the jollification in the celebration of Lee's
surrender, which I have already described. "Ohio's
Quota" contained all the figures on the monument except Chase
ADDRESS OF GENERAL R. BRINKERHOFF
At the Dedication of the Ohio Monument, Jackson Park,
September 14, 1893.
We, the citizens
of Ohio, have met to-day in this pantheon of the nations to
remember and honor our own great state. Whilst we are
Americans, and proud of our nationality, we are also proud to
believe that in the galaxy of states there is no star brighter
than Ohio. Nowhere on the rounded globe is there another
block of land of the size of Ohio which equals it in all the
essentials required for the abode of civilized men. In
fertility of soil, in diversity of products, in mines of coal
and iron, in quarries of stone, in healthfulness of climate,
in beauty of landscape, in accessibility of location by water
and by land, she is absolutely peerless.
Leaving out the great cities of New York, Philadelphia
and Chicago, which are alien rather than native, and are the
creations of commerce and not the children of a state, Ohio is
easily the greatest state in the Union in population and
wealth, and always will be.
Whilst we remember all this, and are proud to remember
it, we also remember and are glad to remember that the highest
glory of a state or nation is not in bigness, but in mind, as
manifested and represented by its men and women.
Two thousand years ago that contracted peninsula in the
Aegean Sea was but a speck in size compared with the
surrounding countries, and yet, to-day, in architecture and in
art, in oratory and in song, in literature and in philosophy,
and in all that makes a nation truly great, the republics of
Greece are the models of the world.
Two thousand years ago, and for a thousand years
before, Palestine was but a handbreadth on the continent of
Asia, between the Jordan and the sea; and yet in all the
nations of the world's annals the Hebrew is the most memorable
and the most potential.
So in a concourse of nations, the highest claim for
recognition must be mind and not matter - men and not things.
So in this concourse of nations in which we are now gathered,
Ohio is not ashamed to present her achievements in comparison
with the proudest, both in matter and in mind; for around us
to-day, in every department of human endeavor, the image and
the superscription of Ohio is pre-eminent.
To-day, however, in the dedication of this monumental
group, we call attention to the fact that in men of
international renown, Ohio is absolutely peerless among the
states and nations of this western hemisphere. Like the
constellation of Orion in the heavens, we have six stars of
resplendent magnitude, and in the inventory of our treasures,
"these are our jewels."
Who they are and what they were is known to all
mankind, and therefor for the purposes of this exposition, a
biographical description is not necessary, but for the
purposes of this exposition, a biographical description is not
necessary, but for the purposes of this gathering of Ohio
people, it seems proper for those who knew them, not only to
bear testimony to their pre-eminence as soldiers and
statesmen, but also to give personal recollections of
acquaintance with them. I knew them all, and some of
them intimately. Grant, Sherman, and Sheridan are the
only soldiers who ever attained the full rank of general, in
the United States, since the organization of our government.
In the splendor of their achievements, they have never been
equaled upon this continent, and have never been surpassed by
the soldiers of any other continent. They were not only
great soldiers, but they were also patriotic citizens, and
never thought a thought or dreamed a dream, that was disloyal
to liberty or the institutions of their native land.
So with Chase, Stanton, and Garfield; they were not
only statesmen of the highest rank, but they were also
noble-minded gentlemen in all the relations of life. Mr.
Chase, Mentally, morally and physically, was the noblest man,
I think, I have ever known. He was the friend of my
youth, and the friend of my manhood, and I knew him better
than any other public man of high position. He was my
political god-father, and I followed his banner until he died.
As an anti-slavery leader before the war, as a financial
organizer during the war, he had no equal. As a
statesman, as a patriot and as a Christian gentleman, I do not
know of any one since Washington, more worthy of honor by the
nation or more worthy of imitation by coming generations.
Edwin M. Stanton, next to Lincoln, in my judgment,
rendered more important service in subduing the Rebellion than
any other man. Never in the history of the nations, has
there been a war secretary of larger ability, or greater
devotion to the cause he represented. He was the right
hand of the President in the great struggle, and a century
hence, when history can be written in truer proportions than
is possible now, the name of Stanton in the great rebellion
will be next to Lincoln. No one, perhaps, in the great
struggle was more misunderstood than Mr. Stanton. To the
multitude he seemed harsh, and to many cruel, and even now to
the majority of Americans, I apprehend such ideas are more or
less dominant, but to those who were near enough to him to
know him intimately, and I was one of them, there was no man
more kind, or considerate, or appreciative. To drones,
or laggards, or shirks, he was merciless, but to everyone,
high or low, who was efficient, and sought to do his duty, he
was always a friend. Of those upon our monument, there
is no one, perhaps, of wider international renown than
President Garfield. The pathos of his death, as much as
the achievements of his life, has made him immortal. No
man in this generation was endowed by nature with larger
gifts, and no one, probably, ever came to the office of
president better equipped for the discharge of its duties, and
therefore, the calamity of his taking off has filled the world
with sorrow. I was associated with him in many ways
before the war, during the war, and after the war, and a more
attractive man I have never known. I doubt if any man in
public or in private life had more friends and fewer enemies
than James A. Garfield.
In conclusion, let me say that we as citizens of Ohio
have reason to thank God and rejoice that we have a heritage
so glorious as the memories of the men we celebrate to-day.
The emulation of examples like these makes nations great, and
keeps them so. The soil out of which such men have grown
is good to be born on, good to die for, and good to be buried
in. - Brinkerhoff's "Recollections of a Lifetime." pp.
An imposing statue
of William McKinley occupies a commanding position at the
western entrance to the State House grounds, Columbus, O.
The entire cost of this work of art was $50,000, one-half of
which was contributed by the citizens of the capital city, and
one-half by the State through an appropriation by the General
The statue was unveiled September 14, 1906, in the
presence of 50,000 people. Mrs. Nicholas Longworth,
daughter of President Roosevelt, drew the silken cord that
released the draping flags from the statue of bronze. In
the evening eloquent addresses were delivered by Judge William
R. Day, of the United States Supreme Court, and Hon. John W.
Daniel, United States senator from Virginia.
The memorial is in the form of an arc of a circle.
In the center is the pedestal surmounted by a figure of heroic
size representing President McKinley, as he delivered his last
address at the Pan-American Exposition. At each end and
connected with the central pedestal by a granite bench are
bronze groups of allegorical figures, "intended to typify
American ideas and sentiments that underlie good government."
"On the right is the type of physical force and human
energy in repose - beside whom is seated the youth of the
coming generation in the attitude of intense study - counseled
by the practical wisdom of maturity. Together they
typify prosperity through progress.
"On the left is a beautiful figure of a woman, typical
of those noble attributes of heart and home for which were
exemplified in the man toward whom was looks. Her left
hand, protectingly encircling the maiden at her side, places
above the emblems of war (sword and helmet) the palm of peace.
The maiden holds in her hand a wreath. This group is
intended to symbolize the tribute of the people to McKinley."
On the stone work on either side of the statue of
McKinley are quotations from his last address. On the
"Let us ever remember that our interest is in
concord, not conflict; and that our real eminence rests in the
victories of peace, not those of war."
On the right:
"Our earnest prayer is that God will graciously
vouchsafe prosperity, happiness and peace to all our
neighbors; and like blessings to all the peoples and all the
powers of earth."
The statue is the work of the well known sculptor,
Hermon A. MacNeil.
* At this celebration General Brinkerhoff had displayed
illuminated portraits of Grant, Sherman and Sheridan over
which was the inscription "Ohio's Quota."