OHIO GENEALOGY EXPRESS

A Part of Genealogy Express

 

Welcome to
Pickaway County, Ohio
History & Genealogy

 

History of Pickaway County
Source:  History of Franklin & Pickaway Counties, Ohio
Illustrations and Biographical Sketches
Published by Williams Bros. 1880

 

* CIRCLEVILLE    * MADISON * SALT CREEK
* DARBY * MONROE * SCIOTO
* DEER CREEK * MUHLENBERG * WALNUT
* HARRISON * PERRY * WASHINGTON
* JACKSON * PICKAWAY * WAYNE
     


CIRCLEVILLE
 

* CIRCLEVILLE   
       * ORIGIN OF NAME & DESCRIPTION OF ANCIENT MOUNDS
       * CHURCHES

       * SCHOOLS
       * CEMETERIES
       * MERCANTILE INTERESTS
       * MANUFACTURING INTERESTS
       * SOCIETIES
       * OTHER
       * TOWNSHIP
            *ORIGINAL PROPRIETORSHIP
            * SETTLEMENTS
            * INCORPORATION OF THE TOWNSHIP OF CIRCLEVILLE
            * INDUSTRIAL PURSUITS IN THE TOWNSHIP.
            * THE MEDICAL PROFESSION OF CIRCLEVILLE
       *
BIOGRAPHIES

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SCHOOLS
 

   CIRCLEVILLE PUBLIC SCHOOLS

     Previous to 1820, according to the recollection of the oldest inhabitants, all the schools held in Pickaway county were sustained entirely by subscription, and the only branches taught were reading, writing and arithmetic.  The school-houses, even in Circleville, were log houses of a single room.  These were made comfortable by seaming the cracks with tempered clay, and light, by pasting oiled paper over the latticing in the window holes, cut through the unhewn logs.  Slabs, on the rude legs, supplied sittings, and other slabs along the walls, supported on pins fixed at a proper slope in the logs, beneath the windows, were the convenient "writing benches" of that day.
    Dillworth's spellers, readers and arithmetic, were among the first text books used here, unchanged from before the adoption of our federal currency.  The first reading classes began with the New Testament.  The introduction, later, of Webster's speller and the Columbian orator,  helped greatly to a more definite grading of classes.  Lindley MURRAY's works afterwards gave an impetus to improved teaching.
     Johnson HUNTER, was a successful teacher of this earlier time, down to 1818.  He taught in a log house, of the kind described, just south of the resent market space.  In another similar building, not far south of the present High street building, Hans HAMILTON kept school. Hugh Hannagan is spoken of as a teacher of excellent parts, but as often painstakingly too freely of the "liquid Hospitality" of the country.
     Marked improvements in the schools took place after 1820, when teachers of a superior class, and of professional pride, were employed.  Of these, we name Hon. Joseph OLDS, Dr. Edson B. OLDS, Dr. M. BROWN and Hon. J. C. GROOM.
     No common schools, entirely free, can be said to have been established here until after the passage of the school law of 1838.  Soon after, the Little academy was built by the district.  It stood beside the Circleville academy, the best private school here at that time, or afterwards, and consisted of a single room.  By the boys who went to the pay-school, it was mockingly denominated the "kitchen school."  Pine desks ran around the walls, behind which, raised a step or two above the floor, sat the larger scholars, while the little ones were seated on benches ranged in front upon the floor, and facing the middle of the room.  Other district schools were held in rooms about town wherever they could be had.
     Till 1849, male teachers were mainly employed, at about twenty dollars a month.  The county examiners tested them by law, only in the three R's, but added their qualifications in other branches if they desired to teach them.  For such extra teaching the scholars were required to pay.
     There were three directors elected by the people.  George GEARHART, of whom mention will again be made, was a director from 1838 to 1849.  The school funds were derived from the State school tax creating a State fund of two hundred thousand dollars; from township school lands, and from interest on proceeds of "section sixteen."  No special provision was made for the books or tuition of indigent pupils.  The charity of the benevolent afforded some help of this kind.  Judge H. N. HEDGES, George GEARHART, esq., and the Ohio Common School Director, conducted in 1838, by Hon. Samuel LEWIS, first State school commissioner, are the sources of the facts narrated under this topic.
     [This account of the early schools of Circleville is so meagre that the editors feel bound to add the few facts they have been able to glean in regard to them.
     In the Circleville Herald and Ohio Olive Branch, bearing date Sept. 11, 1830, we find the advertisement of a "female seminary," taught by the Misses STREETER, who having rented two rooms in Mr. McCRACKEN's brick row of buildings, and fitted up the same, were prepared to teach all the branches usually taught in female schools.  The terms of tuition were certainly sufficiently moderate, varying from two to four dollars per quarter.
     The facilities for obtaining an education must have been ample in those early times; for we find that, eight years later, when Atwater's History of Ohio was published, the town of Circleville contained (as stated in that work) "four churches and about twelve schools - one or two, for young ladies, deserving great praise, and receiving it."
     Ten years later, that is, in the spring of 1848, Mr. C. C. NEIBLING, a native of Lancaster, Ohio, came to this place and opened a select school for boys only, under patronage of some of the best citizens of the town. His school consisted of about forty scholars, the maximum number that he would receive.  His charges were four dollars per scholar, for each quarter of sixty days, payable in advance.  The enterprise continued to flourish very successfully for about four years, or until the union schools were inaugurated.  The free system soon taught the professor that his "occupation was gone," and he therefore left the profession and went into other business.  He was a good mathematician, a laborious teacher, and very pains-taking with his pupils.  As a consequence, his school achieved a high degree of success.  He still resides in Circleville, and is now the city engineer.
     In an old paper of 1850 we find an advertisement of the "Circleville female seminary," taught by Benjamin M. LUDDEN and wife, with three other teachers.  These were succeeded, in the same year, by the Rev. W. S. SPAULDING and wife, with two other teachers.
     In the same paper of about a year later, we find a notice of a select school taught by Lucy M. ATWATER, who was afterward associated in the same school with R. A. FOSTER.
    
We are painfully aware that this is a very imperfect showing of the early educational history of Circleville; but it is all we can find room for, and, at the same time, insert as we desire to do, the full and complete history of the graded schools which follows. - EDS]
     On Sept. 11, 1849, John CRADLEBAUGH, S. A. MOORE, Joseph G. DODDRIDGE, Jacob RUTTER, Chester OLDS, and seen others, issued a call to the qualified electors of the town of Circleville to assemble on the 22d prox. and "then and there to vote, by ballot, for or against the adoption of an act for the better regulation of the public schools, etc., passed by the general assembly of Ohio on the twenty-first of Feb., 1840."  Ninety-seven ballots were cast on the day designated, of which "eighty-seven were for school law, nine against school law, and one blank;" whereupon the act of assembly aforesaid was declared adopted by the town of Circleville.
     On the fourth day of October following, six directors of public schools in this district until such time as the board of directors can procure or build a suitable house to accommodate the scholars."
     During the two or three months succeeding the passage of this resolution, a somewhat sharp division of views seems to have arisen, in and out of the board, as to whether it were better to erect a small school-house in each ward, suitable to accommodate its scholars, or to "erect one school-house in this district of sufficient size and capacity to accommodate all the children of the town."  Finally, it was decided to hold a meeting of the people at the court hose, Mar. 18, 1850, to decide by ballot "for or against levying a tax to build a schoolhouse."  Three hundred and eighty votes were polled; one hundred and sixty were for tax and two hundred and twenty against tax, being the majority of sixty against the tax.  This result, so far as the writer has been able to ascertain, did not spring at all from opposition to taxation for the support of free schools, but entirely from opposition to the evident purpose of the board to build but one house in a central location.  It was deemed by the stronger party impracticable, in not absurd, to attempt to gather six to eight hundred children into one edifice for daily instruction.  So many could not be profitably and healthfully provided for under one roof, nor could there be efficient government of such masses on the school grounds.  Other reasons, no doubt, of a local nature, operated to strengthen the popularity of the decentralizing policy of the opposition.
     Determined in their original purpose, the board now took measures to enlighten the people on this question.  In May, of the same  year, William C. Taylor and George GEARHART were selected by the board to visit Massillon, Akron, Cincinnati, and other towns and cities, for the purpose of "examining school-houses, and any and all matters connected therewith."  Besides, Dr. D. A. LORD, then superintendent of the union schools of Columbus, was invited to address the citizens of Circleville, at the Lutheran Church, on education and the organization of public schools under the law of 1849.
     Messrs. TAYLOR and GEARHART returned from their tour of the cities full of enthusiasm in behalf of the union school-house plan, and armed with facts and figures which wrought a speedy change in the public mind.  Again, on the tenth of June, 1850, an election was held at the court house to decide "the levying of a tax of nine thousand dollars, to be called for as follows, to-wit:  three thousand dollars in one year, three thousand dollars in two years, and three thousand dollars in three years, to enable the board of education to purchase ground and build a school-house."  The motion before the board, calling for such vote, further proposed that, in the event of an approving vote, "Messrs.  W. W. BIERCE and George GEARHART should be a committee to purchase of the heirs of E. EVERTS their out-lot (known as EVERTSs' Hall) at a price not to exceed eight hundred dollars, and also of John IRWIN and widow DARST portions of their in-lots, adjoining said out-lots, for an entrance to the same.
     The result of the election was very gratifying to the enlightened and public-spirited men, who, for nearly a year, had used every honorable endeavor to establish in Circleville as excellent a system of graded public schools as existed anywhere in the State.  A majority of one hundred and seventeen votes decided in favor of levying the tax.  The EVERTS property was promptly secured of O. E. NILES and others (heirs of E. EVERTS), and also the in-lots alluded to above.
     A commemorative word should be added with regard to this EVERTS' Hill property.  Mr. E. EVERTS was, for many years before this period, an earnest and successful school teacher of this district.  In a log house of two rooms, an upper and a lower, standing near the old oak just east of the present EVERTS building, he held a popular school.  Many of our older citizens bear grateful testimony to the unwavering zeal he showed in behalf of the establishment in Circleville and throughout the State of a graded public school system, supported liberally by direct tax, and free to all of school age in each district.  Though this property was not large, yet he determined, if such a system could be established in his day, to donate this hill property to the town as a site.  His views were in advance of his time.  In his will, this out-lot of nearly four acres was to be sold by the heirs to the school district, if devoted forever to educational purposes, for the nominal sum of one thousand dollars.  The heirs, in the true spirit of the testator, offered it to the board for eight hundred dollars, though at the time it would have yielded several thousands in town lots.
     Besides the sum of nine thousand dollars provided for by tax, the treasurer of the board, Col. S. A. MOORE, reported having received, up to Jan. 14, 1851, from district and township treasurers, and from State school fund, in full, one thousand four hundred and sixty-one dollars.
     Early in Jan, 1851, Messrs. William C. TAYLOR and Stanley COOK submitted a plan for a school-house "to be known by the name of Union school-house," which was unanimously adopted.  Contracts were at once made (as far as practicable, with the mechanics of Pickaway county) for the material and building of the Union school-house, and Thomas PEDRICK was appointed superintendent to oversee its construction.
     The old district school-house, called the Little academy, standing beside the Circleville academy, near what is now Watt street, between Court and Pickaway, was sold, with all its appurtenances, at auction.  Still further funds were raised by increasing the annual levy beyond the amount necessary to meet the regular expenditures for schools when opened, and by the issue of bonds payable after certain dates, with interest at from eight to ten per cent.
     The building moved rapidly forward to completion, and was ready for occupancy in November, 1852.
     I transcribe from the Ohio Journal of Education for 1853 the following account of this new edifice.  The notice in the Journal is accompanied with an excellent full-page cut of the building and grounds:

"THE CIRCLEVILLE UNION SCHOOL-HOUSE.

     "This building, which is pleasantly situated on a lot of four acres, is ninety-six feet long by sixty-nine feet wide.  It is three stories high above the basement, and contains fifteen school-rooms.  Connected with each room is a closet, which is furnished with a wash-stand, looking glass, combs, and all the paraphernalia of a dressing-room.
     "Neat and commodious apartments are fitted up in the basement for the residence of the janitor.
     "Two of Chilson's No. 6 furnaces are placed in the basement, which afford ample means for heating the house.  In each hall is a large cooler, which is constantly supplied with fresh water.  We noticed, among other things, on looking over a neat pamphlet of sixteen pages, giving a very clear account of the organization or this promising pages, giving a very clear account of the organization of this promising school, that a janitor is employed, who has entire charge of the furnaces, keeping the rooms clean, providing water, ringing the bell, etc.  This is as it should be.  It is the poorest kind of economy to compel teachers or scholars to make fires and sweep the school-rooms, though no better arrangement can be expected till the plan of erecting large building is adopted.
     "The cost of the house and grounds, when the latter is ornamented, will be about thirty thousand dollars."
     Three of the lower rooms were furnished with long pine benches, divided into what are known as box seats; the boxes constituting the partitions between scholars along the settee, and serving as deposits for books and slates.  The remaining rooms - as many as were needed at first, nine in number - were supplied with double desks of walnut, the best of the day.  The lower middle room on the first floor was used as an exercise room for the primaries, especially in unpleasant weather.  The middle room of the third floor was used for morning exercises, and was long denominated the chapel.
     The school revenues were derived from the State common-school fund, from interest on school-lands, and "section sixteen," from foreign tuition fund, and from an annual tax levied each year on the school district, and called special tuition fund.
     Besides the names given as signers of the call to adopt for Circleville the law of the 1849, there are several others worthy of honorable mention, because of their activity in securing the adoption of the union-school system, and in consummating this movement by the completion of the noble edifice described, and by the admirable organization of schools adopted as soon as the rooms were thrown open to the scholars of District No. three.  Such a list must at least include William C. TAYLOR, first president of the board; Col. S. A. MOORE, first treasurer; W. W. BIERCE, George GEARHART, George W. MYERS, and Dr. Wayne GRISWOLD, president of the board for four years from 1850.  
     At a meeting of the school board held in May, 1852, Messrs. GRISWOLD, BIERCE and MOORE were appointed a committee to secure, by correspondence or visitation, a superintendent and other teachers to take charge of the public schools.  This committee reported at the August meeting that they had visited Cincinnati, Columbus, and other places, had attended the teachers' convention at Sandusky, and that they felt full confidence in reporting the name of John LYNCH, of Ashland, as one well qualified to act as superintendent of the Circleville public schools.  The report was accepted, and John LYNCH was unanimously chosen as a principal and said schools, at one thousand dollars per annum.
     It was resolved on this occasion "that the teachers to be employed in the union school shall be one superintendent, with one male assistant and eleven female assistants; and that in the selection of teachers by this board preference shall be given, other qualifications being equal, to those who intend to make the business of teaching a permanent employment."  A board of examiners was also appointed, consisting of John LYNCH, Chauncey N. OLDS, and H. N. BISHOP.
    
The schools were opened on the 22d of November, 1852, with the twelve assistant teachers.
     In October, Mr. LYNCH, by direction of the board, prepared and reported a system of rules for the government of the schools, course of study, and a list of text-books.  These regulations, but slightly modified, and with a few additions, remain in force to this day.

III.  GROWTH OF THE SYSTEM.

     I present herewith, in tabular form, the more important statistics as for as they can now be obtained by diligent research, of the first year of the schools, ending June, 1853; of the third year, ending June, 1855, when the system had been thoroughly tested under Mr. LYNCH's superior management, and of every tenth year thereafter:

================================================================================
  1853. 1855. 1865. 1875.
Number of pupiles enumerated 1201 1292 1800 1903
Number of pupils enrolled 845 813 875 1300
Average daily attendance 600 532 650 803
Number of teachers 12 13 15 25
Number of school rooms 15 15 16 24
Number of grades or departments 4 4 5 5
Number of weeks in session 28 40 40 40
Amounts paid teaches $3216 $3466 $6910 $10917
Total expenditures ...... .... 12597 14003
Value of school property 45000 45000 45000 80000
================================================================================

     The public schools reached at once a marked degree of popularity, which they have steadily maintained.  The public schools reached at once a marked degree of popularity, which they have steadily maintained.  The Circleville academy and all other private schools were closed in 1852.  They have never been re-opened, nor have other pay schools gained foothold since.  All classes, without distinction of politics, religion, or wealth, have freely patronized the public schools, and fostered them by the election of directors who have labored wisely and disinterestedly in the discharge of their responsible trust.

IV.  IMPROVEMENT OF THE SYSTEM.

     Before the close of Mr. LYNCH's supervision, beginning Latin and algebra were introduced into the ninth year of the A  Grammar grade, and under Mr. BARNEY, United States history became a required study in the eighth year, and physical geography in the ninth.  In 1873, superintendent SMART removed the Latin of senior grammar to first year of high school.  AT this time, the sexes were seated in different rooms in the high school and grammar grades.
     Several changes in the course of study and text-books were effected during the administration of Mr. SMART.  He had a text-book on English grammar first begun in the junior instead of the senior grammar, and language lessons in the grades below.  MITCHELL's geographies were supplanted by the eclectic series; oral geography took the place of the introductory book in the primary grade, and the text-book was begun in the intermediate, to be completed in the grammar.  Oral instruction in numbers was substituted in the first three years for RAY's earlier book, and RAY's intellectual and third part begun respectively in the fourth and sixth years.
     The quadrennial report, in reference to music, issued by C. S. SMART, in 1874, says: "In 1870, the board employed a special teacher of music, who, each week, gave a lesson of one hour to each room of the departments above the primary.  Thus music continued to be taught in each white school.  It was considered an optional study, and about one text-book was used from the intermediate through the ninth year.
     "The rudiments of penmanship," says the quadrennial report, "are taught in the lowest grades by the use of slates and pencils.  Copy-books, pens and ink are not used until the last term of the fourth year.  The teachers are required to give instruction each day as it is needed."
     On the opening of the new High street building, under the supervision of M. H. Lewis, in teh spring of 1875, the secondaries were increased from four to six, the primaries from three to six, and, at the close of the school year,  the primaries were increased to eight, and the ninth year of the senior grammar became the first year of the high school, while the sexes heretofore separate, were seated in the same rooms in teh grammar and high school grades.
     During the same period (since Feb., 1875), the word and phonic method was adopted for beginners in the lowest primary.  Very much less was made, through the three lower departments, of oral and concert spelling, and more of written spelling and individual drill.  Each scholar was required to keep lists of his misspelled words and undergo a drill upon them at the close of the week.  The use of McGuffey's speller was dropped from the fourth year to the eighth, and the spelling of all words used, in reader and other recitations, in every grade, required, and examinations held upon them.
     Music was also placed upon a different footing in the fall of 1875.  The single bulky and ungraded volume formerly in use was superseded by Jepson's graded music readers, the first book being introduced in the fourth year.  Oral instruction was begun in the first year.  The study was made obligatory in all except the grammar grades, and lessons of from fifteen to twenty minutes each were give daily by the special and regular teachers, alternately.  The same plan was carried out in the colored as in the white schools.
     In the third term of 1875, a special teacher in writing was employed.  Slate writing, with ruled lines, was begun in the first term of the first year, followed, in the next, by lead pencil writing.  The copy -book was begun in the second year, and pen and ink, with advanced copy-books, in the third year.  The special and regular teachers alternate in charge of classes in both white and colored schools.  It has added greatly to the efficiency of the school, in this branch, that about the same time with these changes, the board determined to supply the common schools with slate and lead pencils, pen-holders and pens, and exercise paper.
     Except the German, adopted as an elective study in the last two years of high school, taught by the regular teachers, no facilities were afforded for the pursuit of this language by the large number of pupils of German parentage or extraction in the schools.  The fall term of 1875 opened with ample provision made for the study of German in the ten upper schools, beginning with the junior secondaries.  A special teacher - la lady of German parentage, thoroughly educated - gives daily instruction to all in these schools whose parents wish them to take German in addition to the regular English course.  The school exercises are so arranged that the German teacher can have her classes in the several rooms during the general study hour.  Over two hundred scholars are now (December, 1875,) under such instruction.
     It is worthy of remark, that successive examinations evidence no falling off in the scholarship of those who pursue this additional study, while there has been a marked gain in facility of expression and quickness of parts.
     Examinations of pupils of all grades during M. Lynch's supervision were conducted by him orally, at the close of each term.  These examinations, in connection with the average of daily recitations, determined the advancement of the pupils.  Mr. Barney continued these oral examinations, but under the charge of several teachers, and made them occasions of special public interest, on which great numbers attended to witness the exercises.  These tests, averaged with the daily records, fixed the success or failure of pupils.
     until 1872, semi-yearly examinations, partly oral and partly written, of the several classes of the common schools were held by Mr. Smart.  From 1872, on to the close of this administration, in January, 1875, written examinations for the purpose of reclassification were conducted by the teachers in all the rooms above the primary grades, at the close of each term.  Except for the high school, all the questions for the classes were made out by the superintendent.  Each scholar wrote out the answers, on paper of his own furnishing, with lead pencil.  The teacher examined and passed upon the papers, which were then folded and sent to the superintendent's office.  Advancement was then based upon the general average made up from the daily class markings, the examinations and the department.  Monthly examinations for trial were held at the option of the teachers, who furnished their own questions, and took no pains to preserve the papers.
     Since the spring term of 1875, Mr. Lewis has made monthly examinations, written with pen and ink upon uniform paper, furnished by the board, obligatory on all the scholars above the third year of the primary grades, including the high school.  The questions are all made out in the office of the superintendent, and handed to treachers on the day of examination.  The fall term opens in teh common schools with a hurried review of the previous year's work.  They are then pressed on in advance work, upon which monthly or six weeks' tests are taken until the close of the second term, when a public examination takes place.  For a searching inspection of this public test of all the schools, together with the modes of recitation held for the four or six weeks previously, special committees of capable citizens, interested in school work, are appointed by the board.  During the third term the monthly examinations are kept up, and, at the final one, the test covers the year's progress.  Promotions are then based upon the average of all the examinations of the year.
     No note is now made of the daily recitations, the incentive of the coming examination being a sufficient spur to steady daily progress, while the teacher, uninterrupted before the class, is free to severely sift the knowledge gained, to amplify and illustrate the points not clearly comprehended, and to block out the ensuing tasks.  The papers, faced with the questions, properly labeled, neatly bound, and with all the answers graded in the margin, are sent to the superintendent's office for final revision, together with a report in full of each scholar's per cents, in the several studies, and his average in all.
     In regard to the times of promotion, Mr. Smart says: "The nearest approach I have been able to make to such a classification as will accommodate the greatest number, without making the manipulation of classes too cumbrous, has been to reclassify three times in the year, and to promote, at any time, pupils whom, on examination, I found prepared."
     Mr. Lewis, on finding that these term promotions were, for several reasons, with so limited a corps of teachers, thwarting rather than accomplishing the objects for which graded schools were organized, returned to speedily as possible to the custom of yearly promotions, except for the first two or three years.  The increased number of primaries enabled him to make his exception without disturbing the classification in the grades above.  Honorable promotion of scholars who outstrip their fellows, and trial promotions of the large number of irregulars, made such by field-work or sickness, bridge quite safely all the difficulties of exceptional cases in grading.
     Improvements in school accommodations, buildings, etc., have been made since 1853.  The original building named the "Everts," in the spring of 1875, contains now sixteen school-rooms, with sittings for eight hundred and fifty pupils, the laboratory, and superintendent's office.  It has been furnished throughout since June, 1875, with the best single desks.  The school board has, of late years, added liberally, as needed, new and improved apparatus and chemical stores.
     In 1871, the board completed the Ohio street building, for colored pupils, at a cost of seven thousand dollars.  It is a fine brick structure, with ample hall and two rooms.  There are sittings for one hundred and fifty pupils.  The rooms are furnished with excellent double desks, with charts, globes, and wall maps.  The site commands a wide sweep of the Scioto valley and river.
     In the spring of 1875, the High street building was completed and furnished with single desks, giving three hundred and fifty sittings.  The edifice is architecturally beautiful, tastefully, yet substantially, finished in every part, and pleasantly located.  It has a large entrance hall, from which the six school-rooms are easy of access; three of these opening upon the first floor and three upon the second.  Three hot-air furnaces heat the rooms comfortably in the coldest weather, while the Reutan mode of ventilation, on the exhaust principle, keeps the atmosphere perfectly healthful.  The total expenditure on this building and surroundings has been upwards of twenty-five thousand dollars.
     William Doane, esq., treasurer of the board for fourteen years past, and chairman of the committee on buildings, furnished the design of these recent structures and supervised their erection.

V.  ORGANIZATION OF THE HIGH SCHOOL.

     The high school was organized at the same time with the union school, Nov. 22, 1852.
     Few changes of importance have been made in the course of study planned by Mr. Lynch and adopted by the board of education in 1852.  The four years' course of the high school includes the following studies:  Algebra, physiology, zoology, botany, geometry, natural philosophy, chemistry, rhetoric, English, Greek, and Latin history, trigonometry, physical geography, astronomy, geology, English literature, mental and moral science, political economy, Latin, Greek, German, and French.
     About twenty pupils have gone from this school to college, although many more than that number have been adequately prepared.  The first class graduated in 1858.  There were five in the class.  Sixteen classes have since graduated, with an aggregate of one hundred and twenty-nine members.  Twenty-three of these were young gentlemen, and one hundred and six young ladies.  The number of scholars in the high school in 1855 was eighty-six; in 1865, eighty-three, and in the fall term of 1875, eighty-nine.  The changes made in conditions of admission will be found stated at length under the fourth topic.
     The following are the high school principals, and term of service since the organization of the school:

  Employed. Resigned.
E. M. Cotton November, 1852 June, 1859
John P. Patterson September, 1859 June, 1860
D. N. Kinsman September, 1860 Mar. 1863
J. M. Atwater April, 1863 June, 1863
O. C. Atwater September, 1863 June, 1865
Milton J. Warner September, 1865 June, 1866
Charles F. Krimmel September, 1866 June, 1872
James H. Clendennin September, 1872 June, 1875
P. M. Cartmell September, 1875 -----

     It is impossible to gauge precisely the usefulness of the high school in this community.  It has materially and beneficially affected all classes of society. 
     Representatives of these seventeen classes are found in the college chair, in the pres, in the learned professions, in the counting-house, in the great railway interests, in the navy, in the army, in our State legislature, and at the head of schools at home and abroad.  Twenty-four, at least, of the graduates, have been successful teachers in our public schools, of whom fourteen are still connected with them in the various grades.  Besides these classes, in estimating the full usefulness and appreciation of the Circleville high school, large account must be made, also, of the four hundred to five hundred others, who, during the twenty-three years of its existence, have enjoyed  one or more years of its advanced instruction and superior training, and have then gone forth and become citizens of influence and culture in this and other communities.

II.  SUPERVISION.

     John Lynch, first superintendent, was elected at the opening of the union school, in the fall of 1852, and, after ten years' service, resigned to enter the army in June, 1862.  Of his very successful organization and management of the schools, much in detail has been given under the second topic.
     Hon. H. H. Barney, who, as State school commissioner, has been deservedly popular, succeeded Mr. Lynch in September, 1862, and continued in office seven years.  He resigned in 1869, withdrawing altogether from the cares of any avocation to that studious ease which the weight of years and his cultured tastes made desirable.  Our citizen still speak with regret of the loss of this scholarly gentleman and honored citizen.
     Mr. C. S. Smart followed Mr. Barney in January, 1869, and resigned after six years' service, in January, 1865, having been elected State school commissioner in October previous.  He was engaged at a salary of one thousand four hundred dollars, which was raised to one thousand eight hundred dollars at the close of the school year.  Under "Improvement of the System," mention has been made of the changes introduced by him.
     In February, 1875, M. H. Lewis entered upon the duties of superintendent, at a salary of one thousand eight hundred dollars.  Under the appropriate topic, the changes made through his recommendations in classification and course of study have been specified.
     Teachers' meetings have been held weekly, or as occasion required, since 1852.  Mr. Lynch, for a time, had all meet at the chapel at half past seven o'clock each Saturday morning, and continue in a kind of normal institute session until half past eleven o'clock.  Later, and still, the general teachers' meetings take place at three o'clock, afternoon, on Friday.  The several superintendents have used this hour for counsel, criticism, and general direction.
     Since February, 1875, it has been the practice of the superintendent to hold general teachers' meetings only as necessary, once in two or three weeks, while two or three special or grade meetings are convened each week.  In these, modes of instruction, government, and special cases are considered.
     At the close of 1875 the public schools are arranged as follows:  I, The high school, taught by three teachers and divided into four regular classes.  2, The common school, with four departments of two grades each, and twenty rooms.  3, The colored school, with two rooms and two teachers.
     Three special teachers of music, penmanship, and German, complete the corps of twenty-eight teachers.
     We append the names of the members of the board of education and instruction for the year 1878-79: S. B. Evans, president; G. F. Wittich, secretary; William Doane, treasure; George Deavenport, S. A. Moore, James Harsha.
     Board of instruction for 1878-9; M. H. Lewis, A. M., superintendent; high school, E. W. Mitchell, Bertha V. Farr, Rosa Hess; A grammar, Lydia A. George; B. grammar, Ella C. Drum, Maggie A. Lewis; C. grammar, Alice Pedrick, Mary J. MacMullin; D grammar, Ida Peebles, Mary C. Beachtel, Flora Littleton; A primary, Anna Myers, Anna L. Sain; B primary, Mary B. Sheridan, Lizzie Atkinson; C primary, Mrs. Maggie Scott, Clara Littleton; D primary, Ida Catner, Sallie Moran, Alice Morrow, Julietta Smith, Jennie Hedges, Delilah Anderson; colored schools, Alex. D. Delany, Maggie E. Crawford, Sallie E. Vaughn; music, T. H. Wittich; penmanship, Harp Van Riper.

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