HISTORY OF HOCKING COUNTY,
by Henry Howe
Publ. Cincinnati: for
the author by Derby, Bradley & Co.
was formed March 1, 1818, from Ross, Athens and Fairfield.
The generally hilly and broken, but along the main streams
level and fertile.
Area about 400 square miles. In 1887 the acres
cultivated were 49,087; in pasture, 88,976; woodland, 49,726;
lying waste, 2,316; produced in wheat, 323,884 bushels; rye,
2,667; buckwheat, 669; oats, 47,195; barley, 792; corn,
303,707; meadow hay, 11,504 tons; clover hay, 848; potatoes,
24,083 bushels; tobacco, 110 pounds; butter, 293,822; cheese,
150; sorghum, 4,244 gallons; maple syrup, 928; honey, 2,550
pounds; eggs, 267, 750 dozen; grapes, 6,865 pounds; wine, 55
gallons; sweet potatoes, 1,729 bushels; apples, 12,027;
peaches, 2,971; pears, 202; wool, 199,072 pounds; milch cows
owned, 3,487. Tons of coal mined, 853,063, being
exceeded only by Perry, Jackson and Athens counties,
School census, 7,982; teachers, 152. Miles of railroad
Population of Hocking
in 1820, 2,080; 1830, 4008; 1840, 9,735; 1860, 17,057; 1880,
21,126, of whom 18,459 were born in Ohio, 631 in Pennsylvania,
430 Virginia, 114 Kentucky, 96 New York, 59 Indiana, 423
German Empire, 198 Ireland, 129 England and Wales, 37
Scotland, 18 France and 13 British America. Census of
The name of this county is a contraction of that of the
river Hockhocking, which flows through it. Hock-hock-ing,
in the language of the Delaware Indians, signifies a
bottle: the Shawnees have it, Wea-tha-kagh-qua
sepe, i.e. Bottle river. John White, in the
American Pioneer, Says: "About six or seven miles
northwest of Lancaster there is a fall in the Hockhocking, of
about twenty feet; above fall, for a short distance, the creek
is very narrow and straight, forming a neck, while at the
falls it suddenly widens on each side and swells into the
appearance of the shape of a bottle, and from this fact the
Indians called the creek Hockhocking."
This tract of country once belonged to the Wyandots,
and a considerable town of that tribe, situated at the
confluence of a small stream with the river, one mile below
Logan, gives the name Oldtown to the creek. The
abundance of bears, deer, elks, and occasionally buffaloes,
with which the hills and valleys were stored, together with
the river fishing, must have made this a desirable residence.
About five miles southeast of Logan are two mounds, of the
usual conical form, about sixty feet in diameter at the base,
erected entirely from stones, evidently brought from a great
distance to their present location.
For the annexed historical sketch of the county we are
indebted to a resident.
Early in the spring
of 1798 several families from different places, passing
through the territory of the Ohio Company, settled at various
points on the river, some of whom remained, while others again
started in pursuit of "the far west." The first actual
settler in the county was Christian Westenhaver, from
hear Hagerstown, Md., of German extraction, a good, practical
farmer and an honest man, who died in 1829, full of years, and
leaving a numerous race of descendants. In the same
spring came the Brians, the Pences and the
Franciscos, from Western Virginia, men renowned for feats
of daring prowess in hunting the bear, an animal at that time
extremely numerous. As an example of the privations of
pioneer life, when Mr. Westenhaver ascended the river
with his family, a sack of corn-meal constituted no mean part
of his treasures. By the accidental upsetting of his
canoe, this unfortunately became wet, and consequently blue
and mouldy. Nevertheless it was kept, and only on
special occasions served out with their bountiful supply of
bears' meat, venison and turkeys, until the approaching autumn
yielded them potatoes and roasting ears, which they
enjoyed with a gusto that epicures might well envy. And
when fall gave the settlers a rich harvest of Indian corn, in
order to reduce it to meal they had to choose between the
hominy mortar, or a toilsome journey of nearly thirty miles
over an Indian trace to the mill. Notwithstanding these
drawbacks, there is but little doubt that for many years there
was more enjoyment of real life than ordinarily falls to a
more artificial state of society. True, though generally
united, disputes would sometimes arise, and when other modes
of settlements were unavailing, the last resort, a
duel, decided all. But in this no "Colt's revolver" was
put in requisition, but the pugilistic ring was effectual.
Here the victor's wounded honor was fully satisfied, and a
treat of "old Monogahela" (rye whiskey) by the vanquished
restored perfect good feelings among all parties. As to
deciding disputes by law, it was almost unthought of. It
is true, there were some few men yelped justices of the
peace, generally selected for strong natural sense, who
admirably answered all the purposes of their election.
One, a very worthy old gentleman, being present at what he
considered an unlawful demonstration, commanded the peace,
which command not being heeded, he immediately threw off his "warmus,"
rolled up his sleeves, and shouted, "Boys! I'll be ---
if you shan't keep the peace," which awful display of
magisterial power instantly dispersed the terror-stricken
multitude. This state of things continued with slow but
almost imperceptible alterations until 1818, when the number
of inhabitants, and their advance in civilization.
obtained the organization of the county.
The warmus above spoken of
was a working garment, similar in appearance to a
"roundabout," and having been made of red flannel was elastic
and easy to the wearer. It was not known, we think, to
any extent outside of Pennsylvania and her emigrants, and we
think originated with the Germans. In our original tour
over the State, in 1846, when we saw a large number of
lobster-back people on the farms or about the village taverns,
we always knew that region had been settled by Pennsylvania
Logan in 1846. -- Logan, the county-seat,
is on the Hockhocking river and canal, one mile below the
great fall of the Hockhocking river, 47 miles southeast of
Columbus, 18 below Lancaster, and 38 miles east of
Chillicothe. It was laid out about the year 1816, and
contains 4 stores, 1 Presbyterian, and 1 Methodist church, and
about 600 inhabitants. The view, taken near the American
Hotel, shows in the centre the court-house, an expensive and
substantial structure, and on the extreme right the printing
office. - Old Edition.
Logan was platted by Gov.
Worthington. The water-power of the Hocking at the
falls was utilized by him, to the extent of a saw-mill and a
couple of cornburrs. In 1825 Logan claimed a population
of 250. The place did not get a start until about 1840,
from the opening of the Hocking canal in 1838, which furnished
an outlet for the produce of the valley. In 1839 the
town was incorporated: C. W. James was the first mayor.
LOGAN, the county seat of Hocking, is on the C.
H. V. & T. Railroad, and on the Hocking river and canal (a
branch of the Ohio canal), 50 miles southeast of Columbus.
It is located on the edge of the Hocking coal and iron region
on the east and south, and close to a rich agricultural region
on the west and north.
County Officers, 1888: Auditor, William M. Bowen;
Clerk, D. H. Lappen; Commissioners, Henry
Trimmer, John T. Nutter, George Marks; Coroner, Geo. G.
Gage; Infirmary Directors, Philip Hansel, Andrew
Wright, Isaac Mathias; Probate Judge, William T. Acker;
Prosecuting Attorney, Virgil C. Lowry; Recorder,
David M. O'Hare; Sheriff, John Gallagher; Surveyor,
James W. Davis; Treasurers, John Notestone, Benjamin H.
Allen. City Officers: A. Steiman,
Mayor; George G. Gage, Clerk; W. P. Price,
Solicitor; Andrew Hall, Jr. Treasurer; Edward
Juergensmeier, Commissioner; Geo. Deishley,
Marshal. Newspapers: Hocking Sentinel,
Democratic, Lewis Green, editor and publisher;
Republic Gazette, Republican, F. S. Pursell,
editor; Ohio Democrat, Democratic, A. H. Wilson,
editor; G. W. Brehm, proprietor. Churches: 1
Catholic, 2 Lutheran, 2 Methodist, 1 Presbyterian.
Banks: First Bank of Logan, John Walker, president;
Chas. E. Bowen, cashier; People's, L. A. Culver,
president; R. D. Culver, cashier.
Manufacturers and Employees -- Frank Kessler,
doors, sash, etc., 6; Reynes & Wellman, flour,
etc., 9; The Logan Woolen Mills, blankets, etc., 10; The Logan
Manufacturing Co., furniture, etc., 54; C. H. V. & T.
Railroad Shops, railroad repairs, 45; Motherwell Iron and
Steel Co., bridges, etc., 83. -- State Report, 1888.
Population in 1880, 2,666. School census, 1888, 1,125.
Capital invested industrial establishments, $187,500.
Value of annual product, $323,000. -- Labor Statistics,
1887. U. S. Census, 1890, 3,119.
The wild scenery in the western part of the county was
first brought to general notice, in "Silliman's Journal of
Science," by Dr. S. P. Hildreth, who was on the first
geological survey of Ohio in 1837. His account, as given
in our first edition, is here repeated:
One of the favorite
descents of the Indians was down the waters of Queer creek, a
tributary of Salt creek, and opened a direct course to their
town of old Chillicothe. It is a wild, romantic ravine,
in which the stream has cut a passage, for several miles in
extent, through the solid rock, forming mural cliffs, now more
than one hundred and twenty feet in height. They are
also full of caverns and grottos, clothed with dark evergreens
of the hemlock and cedar. Near the outlet of this rocky
and narrow valley there stood, a few years since, a large
beech tree, on which was engraven, in legible characters, "This
is the road to hell, 1782." These words were
probably traced by some unfortunate prisoner then on his way
to the old Indian town of Chillicothe.
This whole region is full of interesting scenery, and
affords some of the most wild and picturesque views of any
other of equal extent in the State of Ohio.
It was one of the best hunting grounds for the bear; as
its numerous grottos and caverns afforded them the finest
retreats for their winter quarters. These caverns were
also valuable on another account, as furnishing vast beds of
nitrous earth, from which the old hunters, in time of peace,
extracted large quantities of saltpetre for the manufacture of
gunpowder, at which art some of them were great proficients.
One of these grottos, well known to the inhabitants of the
vicinity by the name of the "Ash Cave," contains a large heap
of ashes piled up by the side of the rock which forms one of
its boundaries. It has been estimated, by different
persons, to contain several thousand bushels. The
writer visited this grotto in 1837, and should say there was
at that time not less than three or four hundred bushels of
clean ashes, as dry and free from moisture as they were on the
day they were burned. Whether they are the refuse of the
old saltpetre makers, or were piled up there in the course of
ages, by some of the aborigines who made of ages, by some of
the aborigines who made these caverns their dwelling-places,
remains as yet a subject for conjecture.
The ravines and grottos have all been formed in the
out-cropping edges of the sandstone and conglomerate rocks
which underlie the coal fields of Ohio, by the wasting action
of the weather, and attrition of running water. The
process is yet going on in several streams on the southwest
side of Hocking county, where the water has a descent of
thirty, forty or even fifty feet at a single pitch, and a fall
of eighty or a hundred in a few rods. The falls of the
Cuyahoga and the Hockhocking are cut in the same geological
formation. The water, in some of these branches, is of
sufficient volume to turn the machinery of a grist or
saw-mill, and being lined and overhung with the graceful
foliage of the evergreen hemlock, furnishes some of the
wildest and most beautiful scenery. This is especially
so that the "Cedar Falls," and "the Falls of Black Jack."
The country is at present but partially settled, but when good
roads are opened and convenient inns established, no
portion of Ohio can afford a richer treat for the lovers of
wild and picturesque views.
There is a tradition among the credulous settlers of
this retired spot, that lead ore was found here and worked by
the Indians; and many a weary day has been spent in its
fruitless search among the cliffs and grottos which line all
the streams of this region. They often find ashes and
heaps of cinders; and the "pot holes" in a bench of the sand
rock in the "Ash Cave," evidently worn by the water at a
remote period, when the stream ran here, although it is now
eighty or one hundred feet lower, and ten or twelve rods
farther north, they imagine, were in some way used for
smelting the lead.
As the great
natural curiosities of the county are becoming more known and
appreciated, we think it best to describe them fully, and this
we are enabled to do by a communication from the pen of one
perfectly familiar with them, Dr. O. C. Farquhar, of
possesses more points of interest to the lovers of nature than
can be found in any other portion of the State. Among
the many prominent local places of notoriety and resort that
are to be found in this county, nestled away behind the hills,
or in the valleys of this seeming wilderness, are the ASH
CAVE, ROCK HOUSE, DEAD MAN's CAVE, CEDAR FALLS, ROCK BRIDGE,
and SALTPETRE CAVE, all stand out in the foreground, although
it is impossible for one to go amiss here, who is in search of
nature's most grand and beautiful. The Rock House is
located about twelve miles southwest of Logan, the
county-seat, and six miles in an air line from Adelphi
station. Ross county, on a farm of 300 acres, owned by
Col. F. F. Rempel, of Logan, who is public-spirited and
entertaining, and has recently erected a very simple and
comfortable hotel on the Rock House grounds, for the perfect
accommodation of the throngs of visitors who come here during
the summer months, from all parts of the country.
The Rock House is a house within a wall of massive
sandstone formation, which rises to the height of 166 feet,
and is covered here and there with ferns and lichens.
From out this solid wall of rock, nature's means of time and
the elements have perhaps hewn out this vast Gothic hall and
its attendant chambers, giving it windows and portals, and
great sandstone columns to bear its massive roof. This
cave is wonderful for its peculiar formation. It is
about 350 feet in length, 25 feet high, and fully 25 feet in
breadth. Instead of its leading into the bosom of the
cliff or rocky wall, through a small aperture, as is common
with most subterranean passages, the rocks have been rifted
lengthwise, forming two Gothic doorways at about half the
height of the precipice, affording the means of entrance;
while along its front are arranged five massive sandstone
pillars; the openings between them give the appearance of
Here again it appears marvelous how much of human art
and skill has been displayed by nature; and yet all is devoid
of the handiwork of man. Near the southern end of the
cavern is a shelf or ledge jutting out beyond the doorway, and
above this overhangs the frowning brow of the great precipice,
over which there trickles a little stream of water at both the
east and west ends of this lofty precipice of rocks.
In taking a position in the valley or ravine at the
base of this rocky wall and its cliffs facing the main
entrance which leads to the __, weird-like, mysterious
chambers within, and then cast the eyes well up towards the
top of the cliff-rocks, permitting the vision to range along
the whole frontage for a distance of 500 yards, the view thus
afforded is sublime and grand in the extreme.
The whole face of this wall is so evenly and
beautifully carved by nature's eroding processes, that the
even regularity and beauty of the designs appear to show
beyond a doubt that some experienced workman and carver of
stone could alone have shaped these grotesque, artistic and
fancy forms. "Within this house not made with hands"
there are doors, dormitories, windows, rocky porches, rooms,
halls, stair-ways and chambers, large enough to contain more
than a thousand people. At the door of this cavern can
be seen the form of a book cut in the rock, and on the pages
the following letters appear: I. T. F. B. R. B. A. R: - I. T.
F. F. A. W. M. T. A. W., which translated means, "In the fall
Buck Run bananas are ripe. In the frosty fall a wise man
takes a wife." Buck Run bananas are ripe, In the frosty
fall a wise man takes a wife." Buck Run bananas is the
neighborhood vernacular for paw-paws. There are
countless unique inscriptions on the rocks hereabouts.
One can very pleasantly, and with profit too, spend a month
here delving around among nature's wonders, as only found in
the howling wilderness of the Hocking hills, whose citizens
are always proud of their barefooted Jay-bird orator.
source we learn the cave has six openings, including entrances
and windows. These openings are bounded by stone
columns, as expressed to us in various colors, red, yellow and
green. The dimensions are also thus given: Front
of precipice in which it is situated, 133 feet; length of
cavern, 200 feet; width 25 to 40, and roof from 30 to 50 feet.
In the Ohio Geological Report for 1870 is a brief description
and a picture. We now give our correspondent's
description of the other curiosities.
One of the most striking and beautiful scenes
in Hocking county is so named from the vast quantity of ashes
it contains. It has been variously estimated by
different persons to contain several thousand bushels.
Even as late as this year (1886) there are evidences of many
bushels of wood ashes, nearly as pure, dry and free from
moisture as on the day when they were burned. The source
of this unnatural ashy mystery remains unexplained. It
has been conjectured that they are the refuse of old saltpetre
or nitrate of potash makers, or whether they were piled up in
this cave during the course of ages by some of the aborigines
who made these caverns their places of abode, are at best only
visionary and speculative.
The cave is formed by a projecting cliff at the source
of a little stream, whose deep valley or gulch parts the bold,
rock-ribbed hills whose summits look down upon the tops of the
loftiest pines, which grow at their base. At this point,
which is the highest rock-exposure in Hocking county, the
ledge is not less than 125 feet high, and reaches or projects
over from the base not less than 100 feet, forming a
semicircular cavern nearly 700 feet in length, ninety feet
deep, and about the same in height. At one side of this
semicircle, near the rock, lies the great pile of ashes which
gives this enchanting and mysterious cavern the name of Ash
From the centre of the overhanging roof a streamlet
leaps into a pool below, lending additional grandeur, beauty
and charms to the before sublime picture. For more than
a quarter of a mile distance down this valley, on either side,
rises to a height of from eighty to 100 feet, a rocky ledge,
which for diversity and elegant naturalness forms a scenic
view seldom if ever surpassed. It simply opens out to
the view of the awe-impressed beholder a magnificent
amphitheatre, where every step and every glance unfolds new
and beautiful wonders. Large masses of sand rock are
seemingly thrown together with an intention of pure chaotic
confusion, many of them beautifully lichened with variegated
mosses, rivaling with their gorgeous beauty the finest hues of
the most luxuriant Brussels carpets.
From some points or positions of observation, the eye
takes in the entire length and breadth of this rocky ledge,
from base to summit. At other points are presented the
furrowed erosions of the rocky faces, partly hidden by vines
that clamber up their sides, and the topmost branches of the
scraggy pines that grow up from below. This peculiar,
beautiful, weird and extensive cavern, and the scenery in its
vicinity, is located in Benton township, about twenty-one
miles southwest of Logan, the county-seat. Thousands of
people visit the place each summer, generally making one
journey take them to both the Rock House, only six miles
distant from the cave. Ohio can furnish no more
beautiful scenery than is to be found in this county.
This natural rocky wonder is
situated in Good-Hope township, Hocking county, on the Hocking
river, and the line of the Columbus, Hocking Valley and Toledo
Railway, about midway between Lancaster and Logan. This
curiously is a sandstone formation, the under side forming an
arch of about thirty degrees curvature. The bridge is
level on the top, ranges from ten to twenty feet wide, and is
entirely detached from all adjoining rock for a distance of
nearly 100 feet. The span, measured from the under side,
is about 150 feet, and is at an elevation of about fifty feet
from the bottom of the gulch it spans. The location and
easy accessibility, together with the romantic, wild-like
place, its fine shade and picturesque surroundings, have made
it a favorite site for picnic excursions from all points along
the line of the Columbus, Hocking Valley and Toledo Railway.
In the summer of
1886, a few weeks before the decease of Colonel Charles
Whittlesey (see page 523), he gave us orally some
interesting items, gathered when on geological surveys of
Ohio, about forty-five years before. "Early in this
century," said he, "before the establishment of courts to try
culprits, there was a rude system of justice established by
the people. The wilderness region - the hill-country of
Southeastern Ohio - at times suffered from the crimes of
scoundrels who stole horses from the poor settlers and
sometimes committed murder. Whenever they were caught,
and evidence certain, the people hung or shot them with but
little formality. A considerable number of desperadoes
were thus disposed of; but the facts did not go out to the
public, as it was before the days of newspapers.
north part of Hocking county (the name of the township I don't
recollect, only that it was on the south side of S. W. 1/4 of
section 24) is a cave called Thieves' Cave, where the
horse-thieves gathered their horses - more properly a rock
shelter, shelving towards the rear. It was in the form
of an ellipse, about 130 feet long and thirty feet to the
rear. In the beginning of the century horses were
brought here. Here the horse-thieves lived and hunted.
As late as 1872 horse-manure was found by me while exploring
At New Straitsville, in the adjoining county of Perry,
is a rock shelter on the south side of Sugar Run, about 100
feet long and forty broad, where religious meetings and
meetings of miners have been held.
Anciently there was a hunters' trail on the height of
land between Lost Run and the West Fork of Snow Fork.
This was only a short distance from the cave. Shortly
after the war of 1812, say about 1816, a man with his family,
moving West, was overtaken by winter and out of money, about a
mile and a half northeast from Thieves' Cave, on the West Fork
of Snow Fork, near where it is crossed by the county line of
Hocking and Perry. He found there a sand-stone block,
which, separated from the main cliff, fell and stood upright,
thus forming with the main cliff, two vertical walls, He
closed up the rear end and made a door at the other. His
only light was from the open door. He had plenty of wood
and water. He made shoes all winter for the sparse
settlers, and in spring had money enough to pursue his
Lost Run derived its name from a hunter lost.
Years after his skeleton was found with gun by his side.
He had evidently been sitting by a tree and had frozen to
ONE OF "THE OLD GUARD" AN
There died in Logan
county, in June, 1885, Christopher Stahley, aged 104
years and 10 months. He was a "last survivor" of the
grand army of Napoleon; a native of Alsace; a typical veteran
of the wars, scarred and crippled. He was a man of
culture, and grew eloquent when describing his campaigns; and,
like all of Napoleon's soldiers, adored his leader and
worshipped his memory. We give herewith extracts from
Stahley's story, as related to the correspondent of the
became a soldier at fifteen, and was one of the thirty
thousand men who went with Napoleon to Egypt, and was one of
the first to enter the city of Malta. I was with my
command at the Pyramids, and participated in the terrible
conflict with the Mamelukes. Thence across the desert
and through the Isthmus of Suez to Gaza and Jaffa, and saw the
1,500 put to death for breaking their parole, and helped to
annihilate the allied army of 18,00 at Aboukir.
"It was in 1804 that we helped to proclaim him Emperor,
and saw the preparations made to invade England. But
England was spared and Austria punished instead.
"Three years of preparation and we were on the road to
the Capital of Russia in that memorable campaign of 1812.
There were 480,000 of us who went forth to glory. Less
than half that number returned, and the most of them after
being detained as prisoners. I saw them fall by
battalions at Smolensk and Borodino, and perish by grand
divisions on the retreat from Moscow to Smorgoni. I
personally attended the Emperor to France, when he bade adieu
to his soldiers at the latter city.
"I was one of the Old Guard. There is a blank in
my memory, and I do not know how I got back to Paris; but I
found myself there, and learned that my old commander was a
prisoner at St. Helena. Then came the news of his death.
I had taken part in fifty engagements, great and small, and
had seen men die by the thousand; but that death affected me
more than all the rest put together.
"In 1822, in company with my wife, I emigrated to
America. We reached Pittsburg by stage. From there
we floated down the Ohio on a flat-boat to the mouth of the
Muskingum, and ascended that river to Zanesville in canoe.
From Zanesville, I trundled all my earthly possessions in a
wheelbarrow to St. Joseph's near Somerset, where I bought a
farm and settled down. Then began my disasters. My
oldest son was with me in the forest hewing logs for a barn,
and by a false stroke of the broad axe cut off my thumb and
finger. A few years later a vicious horse kicked me in
the forehead and left this scar that looks like a sabre cut.
The next year I fell from a tobacco-house I was helping to
raise, and broke four ribs and my collar bone. Ten years
later I slipped and fell into a threshing-machine, and I had
my foot torn off. A few years ago I was on my way to
church, and my horse ran away, threw me out of the carriage,
shattered my elbow, and left me with a stiff arm. I am
in constant dread of meeting a fatal accident. Had I
remained in the grand army of the Emperor I would feel
TRIP TO THE HOCKING VALLEY
mining interests of the Hocking valley have developed
enormously within the past ten years. Immense quantities
of this coal are carried by rail to Lake Erie, and thence
transported by water to points on the lakes, while large
quantities of it are reshipped by rail at Duluth and other
points, for consumption in the Northwestern States.
The operators of the Hocking valley have ever been
ready to take advantage of new improvements in mining
machinery and labor-saving devices to increase the out put of
their mines. An account of a recent visit of the members
of the Ohio Institute of Mining Engineers, for purposes of
inspection, was published in the Ohio State Journal.
We make extracts therefrom:
first stop was made near Straitsville where No. 11 mine, owned
by the Columbus and Hocking Coal and Iron Company, was visited
and the thickness of the great vein was noted. The next
stop was made at Sand Run, where the box-car loading machine
was in operation. This machine is truly wonderful in its
mechanism. The coal runs from a chute into the box-car
door, where the coal is received on a portable platform run in
through the opposite door. There is a steam shovel
attached to this platform, which works from right to left,
throwing the coal to each end of the car. The machine is
worked by steam and is under the control of coal to each end
of the car. The machine is worked by steam and is under
the control of an operator, who regulates the speed of the
engine. This labor-saving device takes the place of four
men, and with it a box-car can be loaded as quickly as an open
Another interesting machine at these works is the
endless-rope haulage system. The engine is made on the
same plan as a railroad locomotive, and the large drums over
which the wire rope runs can be run backward or forward at the
will of the engineer. Ten bank-cars are brought out of
the mine at a time, making about fifteen tons of coal, or
about the average amount loaded on each railroad coal-car.
There is a large dial, with a hand attached to the fly-wheel.
This enables the engineer to know at all times where the train
Leaving Sand Run at 9:10 a.m., the next stop was made
at the mines of the Consolidated Coal and Mining Co., at
Brashears, where the air-compressor and the Harrison mining
machines are in operation. The Lechner air-drills and
wire-rope haulage were also in use.
After dinner the party visited the mines of the
Ellsworth and Morris Coal Company at Brush Fork, which are the
largest mines in the United States. At these
mines there is an entry on each side of the valley, tracks
leading in a "Y" on the same hoppers, and the coal is dumped
over the same tipple. The capacity of the mines at this
place is two thousand tons per day. One cannot imagine
the magnitude of this great work without seeing it.
Seven bank-cars are dumped per minute, or ten and a half tons.
The wire-rope haulage system is used here also, but on a
larger scale. The two last mines visited are fitted out
with the latest machinery.
Leaving Brush Fork at two o'clock the next stop was
made at Buchtel, where some left the train to visit the large
blast furnace, the coke-ovens of the Nelsonville Coal and Coke
Mr. Thomas E. Knauss, of
Columbus, was with the party. Mr. Knauss was
formerly located at Nelsonville, and is the pioneer of the
wire-rope haulage system in the Hocking valley.
The Haydenville Mining and
Manufacturing Company, of which Peter Hayden, of
Columbus, was president and principal owner, is a large
concern; owning 3,000 acres of valuable mineral land,
underlaid by rich deposits of coal and fire-clay; large and
substantial building and factories, employing a large force
of men, the company turns out immense quantities of
sewer-pipe, fire-proofing, terra cotta, and paving-blocks.
The industry is a valuable one.
Its development is
due to the enterprises of Peter Hayden, he being one of
the pioneer coal operators of the Hocking valley, and one who
has done as much as any one man for the development of the
vast mineral wealth of this region.
Mr. Hayden's death, which occurred April 6,
1888, brought sorrow and grief to many hearts in this valley,
as he was renowned for his patriarchal care, his consideration
for the comfort and interests, and benevolence to those in his
employ. Men of all classes deemed it an honor to work
for him. He employed none but sober, industrious, and
intelligent men, and never permitted a good man to leave his
service, if money and considerate treatment were an inducement
to remain. As a result, his enterprises were singularly
free from all labor complications; and his career affords an
example to be emulated by all those employing large numbers of
HAYDENVILLE is six miles southeast of Logan, on the
Hocking Canal and C. H. V. & T. Railroad. Population
GORE is eight miles
northeast of Logan, on the Straitsville branch of the C. H. V.
& T. Railroad. Population about 600. School
census, 1888, 200.
CARBON HILL is eight
miles southeast of Logan, on the H. V. division of the C. H.
V. & T. Railroad. Population about 500.
LAURELVILLE is twenty-two miles southwest of
Logan. It has one Cumberland Presbyterian and one
Baptist Church. Population about 300. School
census, 1888, 111.
MILLVILLE is eight miles northwest of Logan, on
the C. H. V. & T. Railroad. Population about 250.
School census, 1888, 115.
MURRAY CITY is twelve miles east of Logan, on
the C. H. V. & T. Railroad. Population about 500.
SOUTH BLOOMINGVILLE is
seventeen miles southwest of Logan. Population, 350.